Botany Courses Content

 

First level
B 101 Systematic botany, 2h/W
Introduction to the study of systematic botany – Plant Kingdom – Different systems of classification of plants up to date – procaryotic and eucaryotic cells – Viruses – Bacteria – Fungi – Algal – Bryophyta – Pteridophyta Gymnosperms – Angiosperms – Environmental adaptations
Practical: 2h/W
 
B 102 Fundamentals of Plant physiology, 2h/W
Introduction to the study of plant physiology and its modern branches Cytoplasm and its physical and chemical properties – The relationship between plants and environment – Studies on certain physiological phenomena in plants and environment - Relation ship between plants and soil , water and dir – Enzymes – Respiration and photosynthesis – Basic concepts of biotechnology .
Practical: 2h/W
 
B 106 Physiology and Microbiology, 2 h/W
Introduction – the plant cell – classification of plant kingdom – Study of general character of microorganisms– recent advances – study of some physiological phenomena- enzymes – metabolism – respiration – photosynthesis – recent advances.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Second level
B 201 Introduction to plant ecology, 1h/W and taxonomy, 1h/W
a- Plant ecology: Definition of plant ecology – The vegetation and its evolution – Concepts of plant succession – Classification of plant according to their water – Definition of soil – Origin , formation and characteristics of soil – Soil micro flora and soil solution . b- Plant taxonomy: Historical review – Basic structure and types of flowers , in florescence and fruits – Study of pollination and fertilization – Study of concise families of the monocots and dicots
Practical: 2h/W
 
B 202 Introduction to general Plant Metabolism,2h/W
Definitions, Anabolism Definition, Catabolism definition, Carbohydrate metabolism, outline of Lipid metabolism, outline of Amino acid metabolism, outline of Organic acid metabolism.
Practical: 2h/W
 
B 203 Cytogenetics and Physiology of growth and development, 2h/W
a- General genetics (1h/W), Introduction to the study of genetics – Scientific terms – Monohybrid standard inheritance – Mechanisms – Dilybrid inheritance – Mutation : Kinds and specifications – Effects of environmental pollution on the genetic make up.
b- Physiology of growth and development (1h/W), Germination and dormancy – Growth: definitions and growth curves – Normal and stress conditions for growth – Physiology of flowering, fruiting and yield.Growth hormones: Definitions, chemical and biophysical properties of plant hormones – Classification and mode of action of hormones – Main metabolic processes which characterized, mouth and development under normal and stressed conditions .
Practical: 2h/W
 
B 204 General microbiology, 1h/W
Historical review about microorganisms including viruses bacteria , and fungi – Classification , properties , morphology , anatomy and types of cultivation of microorganisms – Factors affecting growth and reproduction of microorganisms – Study of examples of useful microorganisms – Methods of controlling the harmful microorganisms - Role of certain microorganisms in the carbon cycle , nitrogen cycle , phosphorus cycle and sulphur cycle in nature – Concise Knowledge on infection and immunity .
Practical: 2h/W
 
B 205 Biophysics of Photosynthesis, 1h/W
Introduction – phytochrome system- red and far red spectra – physiological action of phytochrome on Living organisms (Especially plants) – biophysics of UV radiation – Photosynthesis: Photosynthetic apparatus –PSI –PSII – electrone transport – recent advances.
Practical: 2h/W, Tutorial:1/W
Third level
 
 
Third level
B 301 Mycology, 2h/W
Calssification: key to fungal divisions- Myxomycotina- Zoosporatic fungi- Zygomycotina- Ascomycotina- Basidiomycotina- Deutromycotina- Environmental factors affecting distribution of fungi.
Pre-requisite: B 101, Practical: 2h/W
 
 
B 302 Bacteriology, and immunology, 2h/W
Bacteriology:Groups of bacteria- Study of some selected groups- Growth and control of bacteria- pathogenic and normal bacterial flora in living organisms- Actinomycetes and Rickettsias.Immunology:Historical background- Innate immunity- Antigen- Acquired immunity- Interaction of antibody with antigen (Serological tests).
Pre-requisite B 101 Practical: 2h/W
 
B 303 Physiology of growth and plant hormones, 3h/W
Physiology of growth (2h/W), Seed germination and dormancy- Factors affecting germination- Definitions of growth- Growth curve- Factors affecting growth- Morphogensis.
Plant hormones ( 1h/W ), Definitions- Chemical nature of growth hormones- The occurrence and production of hormones- Transport of hormones- Metabolism of hormones- Mode of action and roles of hormones.
Pre-requisite: B 202, Practical: 2h/W, Tutorial: 1h/W
 
B 304 Cell ultrastructure and Pollution, 2h/W
a- Cell ultrastructure ( 1h/W ),Historical review- Ultrastructure of the cell- ultrastructure of cell membranes- Ultrastructure of cytoplasmic organells- Ultrastructure of nucleus.
Pollution (1h/W),Introduction and definition- Water pollution- Air pollution- Soil pollution- Measurements and control of air- water and soil pollution.
Pre-requisite: B 203, Practical: 2h/W
 
B 305 Plant cover and plant breeding, 2h/W
Plant cover (1h/W ),Definition- Vegetation and its revolution- Plant succession: hydroses and xerosere- Classification of plants according to their water- Factors affecting vegetation.
Plant breeding (1h/W ),Introduction to the study of plant breeding- Basic biology of plant breeding- Selection and its role in modern plant breeding- Advanced aspects in plant breeding.
Practical: 2h/W
 
B 306 Mineral nutrition and nutrient cultures, 2h/W
a- Mineral nutrition (1h/W ), Sources of mineral salts- composition of plant ash- Essential and non-essential elements- Occurrence available forms- Functions- Deficiency symptoms of major and minor elements- Brief discussion on mineral salt absorption and translocation.
b- Nutrient cultures (1h/W ),Types and composition of nutrient cultures- Nutrient cultures for growth of microorganisms- Nutrient cultures for growth of higher plants- Specifications and factors affecting nutrient cultures.
Pre-requisite: B 202, Practical: 2h/W
 
B 307 Plant pathology and control, 2h/W
Definition of diseases- Diseases indicated by plasmodiphoro-mycetes- Diseases indicated by chytridiomycetes- Diseases indicated by Oocmycetes- Diseases indicated by zygomycetes-Diseases indicated by Ascomycetes- Different types of control at plant diseases- Genetic control of plant diseases.
Pre-requisite: B 101, Practical: 2h/W
 
B 308 Biotechnology, 2h/W
An introduction to biotechnology- substrates for biotechnology- genetics and biotechnology- bioprocess/fermentation technology- enzyme technology- biological fuel generation- single cell protein- Biotechnology and medicine-
Practical: 2h/W
 
B 309 Climate and taxonomy, 2h/W
a- Climate, (1h/W), Definition of climate and weather- General importance and components of climatic factors- Precipitation- temperature- Light and radiation- Humidity- Wind- Evaporation- Atmospheric gases.
Plant taxonomy (1h/W), Scientific systems for taxonomy of flowering plants- Studies of 10 orders of class I (Monocotyledoneae)- Studies of 14 orders of class II (Dicotyledoneae): Monochlamdeae 6 orders including 10 families- Dialypetalae 8 orders including 65 families.
Pre-requisite: B 201, Practical: 2h/W
 
B 310 Phycology and physiology of algae, 2h/W
Phycology (1h/W), Introduction to the study of algae- Types- Structure and growth of algae in different habitats- Classification of algae- Reproduction and life cycles with special examples of some selected algal species- factors affecting growth and distribution of algae- Economic importance of algae.
Physiology of algae (1h/W), Nutrition and cultivation of algae- Algal groups and photosynthetic pigments- Nitrogen metabolism in algae- Physico-Chemical factors affecting algal growth and metabolism- algal culture and its significance.
Pre-requisite: B101, Practical: 2h/W
 
B 311 Molecular biology and microbial genetics, 2h/W
Structure and replication of nucleic acids- Difference between the genetic makup of plants and microbes- plasmides and vectors- Restriction enzymes- Cloning of genes- Gene transformation in plants- Mutations- Phage genetics- Plant improvement through genetic engineering technology.
Pre-requisite: B 203, Practical: 2h/W
 
B 312 Plant anatomy and comparative morphology, 2h/W
Plant anatomy (1h/W ), Secondary body of the plant- Cell types in secondary xylem- Secondary phloem- Secondary growth- Types of stem- Anomalous secondary thickening in dicots and monocots.
b- Comparative morphology (1h/W ), Introduction- Classification- Bryophyta- Pteridophyta- Pteridospermae with selected groups and species-Gymnospermae- Recent advances in comparative morphology.
Pre-requisite: B 201, Practical: 2h/W
 
B 313 Molecular biology and microbial genetics, 1h/W
Structure and replication of nucleic acids, Genomes of plants and microbes, plasmides and vectors, Restriction enzymes, Cloning of genes, Recent advances in molecular biology and microbial genetics.
Practical: 2h/W, Tutorial: 1h/W
 
B314 Photobiology and plant hormones, 1h/W
a- Photobiology , Introduction to the study of photobiology, Phytochrome concept, Mode of phytochrome action, Phytochrome activities, Phototropism, Distribution and transformation of phytochrome in plants, Effects of visible light on plant development, Effects of light on the formation of anthocyanine and other flavonoid compounds, Effects of ultraviolet light (UV) photoreactivation, Ultraviolet damage. Plant hormones, Definitions, Chemical nature of growth hormones, The occurrence and production of hormones, Transport of hormones, Metabolism of hormones, Mode of action and roles of hormones.
Practical: 2h/W, Tutorial: 1h/W
 
B 315 Stress physiology, 2h/W
Types of stress- Physiological effects of stress on germination of seeds, growth and development of plants – Oxidative stress- Mechanisms for nullification of harmful effects of stress.
Practical: 2h/W
 
B 316 Plant anatomy and comparative morphology, 2h/W
Plant anatomy (1h/W ), Introduction- cells, tissues and organs- anatomy of stem, root and leaf- secondary thickening- abnormal secondary thickening – effects of environment on plant anatomy. b- Comparative morphology (1h/W), Introduction, Classification, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Pteridospermae with selected groups and species.
Practical: 2h/W
 
B 317 Bacteriology and Virology, 2h/W
Bacteriology (1h/W), Basics of microbial taxonomy, Numerical taxonomy techniques, Growth and control of bacteria, pathogenic and normal bacterial flora in living organisms, Actinomycetes and Rickettsias.
b- Virology (1h/W), Historical background, Nature of viruses, Chemistry of viruses, Morphology and structure of viruses, Bacterial viruses, Main features of bacterial viruses, Viral pathogenicity, Control of viral infection, Classification of viruses, Virus transmission.
Pre-requisite B 204, Practical: 2h/W
 
B 318 Climate – taxonomy- plant cover, 2h/W
a- Climate, Definition of climate and weather, General importance and components of climatic factors, Precipitation, temperature, Ligth and radiation, Humidity, Wind, Evaporation, Atmospheric gases. Plant taxonomy, Scientific systems for taxonomy of flowering plants, Studies of 10 orders of class I (Monocotyledoneae), Studies of 14 orders of class II (Dicotyledoneae): Monochlamdeae 6 orders including 10 families, Dialypetalae 8 orders including 65families. Plant cover, Definition, Vegetation and its revolution, Plant succession: hydroses and xerosere, Classification of plants according to their water, Factors affecting vegetation.
Pre-requisite B 201 , Practical: 2h/W
 
B 319 Nutrient cultures and tissue culture, 3h/W
a- Nutrient cultures (2h/W), Types and composition of nutrient cultures, Nutrient cultures for growth of microorganisms, Nutrient cultures for growth of higher plants, Specifications and factors affecting nutrient cultures.
b- Plant tissue culture (1h/W), Isolation of plant material and studies on growth and cell division, Bioassay systems for cytokinins, Plant propagation: Sexual and vegetative propagation, Morphogenesis in vitro: Studies on regeneration, Isolation, Culture and fusion of protoplasts from higher plants, Embryo and organ culture, Callus formation, Transplantation.
Practical: 2h/W, Tutorial: 1h/W
 
B 320 Applied microbiology, 2h/W
Introduction – microorganisms – classification –nomencalture – physiology of spore formation –physiology microorganisms –recent advances in applied microbiology.
Practical: 2h/W
 
M 301 Biology of Bacteria, 2h/W
Introduction to biology of bacteria, bacterial evolution and diversity, cell structure of bacteria, bacterial genetics and genomics, host microbe interaction, host defense systems, Infections diseases, the future of Bacteriology.
Pre-requisite B 101, Practical: 2h/W
 
M 302 Virology and immunology, 3h/W
Virology (2 h/W), Historical background, nature of viruses, Chemistry of viruses, Morphology, architecture and structure of viruses, Bacterial viruses, Reproduction of bacterial viruses, Process of infection in animal and plant viruses, cultivation of animal classification of viruses, Virus transmission.
Immunology (1 h/W), Historical background, innate immunity, Antigens, Acquired immunity, Interaction of antibody with antigen and applied in laboratory investigation (Serological tests).
Pre-requisite B 204, Practical: 2h/W, Tutorial: 1h/W
 
M 303 Microbial Genetics and Cell Ultrastructure 2h/W
a- Microbial Genetics (1 h/W), Genetic system of Bacteria, Conjugation of Bacteria,Microbial transformation, Microbial transduction, Regulation of gene expression, Mutations, Advences in microbial genetics.
b- Cell Ultrastructure (1h/W), Historical review, Ultrastructure of the cell, ultrastructure of cell membranes, Ultrastructure of cytoplasmic organells, Ultrastructure of nucleus.
Pre-requisite B 203, Practical: 2h/W
 
M 304 Plant biochemistry (1), 2 h/W
Physical and chemical properties of organic substances in the cell, Carbohydrate metabolism, Lipid metabolism, amino acids and protein metabolism, Hormone metabolism.
Pre-requisite B 102, Practical: 2h/W
 
M 305 Mycology, 2h/W
Classification; Key to division of fungi, Myomycotina, mastigomycotina, Zygomycotina, Ascomycotina, Basidomycotina, Deutromycotina.- Recent advances of mycology.
Pre-requisite B 204, Practical: 2h/W
 
M 306 Phycology and Physiology of Algae, 2h/W
General properties of algae, Types, Structure and growth of algae in different habitat, Classification of algae, Reproduction and life cycles, Examples of species forms different groups, factors affecting growth and distribution of algae, Nutritional requirements of algae, Sources of energy in algae, Photosynthetic pigments, Photosynthesis in algae, Respiration in algae, Nitrogen fixation by some nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae, Physico- chemical factors affecting metabolism and growth of algae.
Pre-requisite B 101, Practical: 2h/W
 
M 307 Food and milk microbiology, 2h/W
Introduction to food and dairy microbiology – detailed study of food microbiology – dairy microbiology : characters –physiology and recent advances in food and dairy microbiology.
Pre-requisite B 204, Practical: 2h/W
 
M 308 Introduction to Medical Microbiology, 2h/W
Bacteria: microbial character – culture media –virulenc factors- diseases caused by bacteria. Rickettsiae and chlamedia and mycoplasma: microbial character – culture media –virulenc factors- diseases code by rickettsiae and chlamedia and mycoplasma.Viruses and spirochetes: microbial character – culture media –virulenc factors- diseases code by viruses and spirochetes – recent advances in medical microbiology.
Practical: 2h/W
 
M 309 Plant Enzymology, 2h/W
Distribution and formation of enzymes, control of enzyme formation, Isolation and Purification, Enzyme cofactors, Enzyme inhibitors, factors affecting enzyme action, regulation of enzyme levels and activity.
Practical: 2h/W
 
M 310 Mineral Nutrition and plant hormones, 2h/W
a- Mineral Nutrition (1h/W), Detection of essential elements, Occurance of the various elements in the soil and its availability form, Absorption and translocation of mineral nutrients, Translocation, Advenced aspects in mineral nutrition.
b- Plant Hormones (1h/W), Structure and physiological effects of Hormones, Hormonal control in the whole plant, Functions of hormones at the cellular, Tissue and organ level of organization.
Practical: 2h/W
 
M 311 Microbial toxins and water and air microbiology, 2h/W
Microbial toxins (1h/W), Introduction – microbial toxins- types- properties – mechanism of action – recent advances in microbial toxins. Water and air microbiology (1h/W), Characters – organisms – mode of action – biocontrol- recent advances in air and water microbiology.
Pre-requisite B 204, Practical: 2h/W
 
M 312 Molecular Physiology, 2h/W
Introduction, Study of the processes that transfer of molecules across membranes. Different classes of molecular machines that mediate membrane transport, Emphasis on interactions among transport proteins in determining the physiological behavior of cells and tissues, Factors affecting transport processes.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Tech 301 Molecular Microbiology, 2h/W
Introduction- Nucleic acid structure and replication-Growth of microorganisms- Mutations- Cloning of different genes- Plasmids and vectors- Restriction enzymes- Gene transformation- Phylogeny- Bootstrap- Advanced aspects in molecular microbiology.
Pre-requisite B 204, Practical: 2h/W
 
Tech 302 Biotechnology of algae, 2h/W
Introduction- the principles and application of algal cells for production of materials- the most recent tools and strategies used by government agencies- industrial labouratories and academic research to adopt biological and chemical algal compounds as medical treatments- as industrial agent.
Pre-requisite B 204, Practical: 2h/W
 
Tech 303 Bioprocessing production, 3h/W
Indirect or Dual fermentation- Direct fermentation- Microbial oxidative transformations of substrate vinegar- Glutamine acid- Hydrocarbon fermentations- Microbial cells as fermentation products- Vitamins and Growth stimulants- Organic acids.
Practical: 2h/W, Tutorial: 1h/W
 
Tech 304 Molecular Ecology, 2h/W
Introduction- Ecological genetics- spread of genes through populations and the role of natural selection in predator-prey- relationships- polymorphism and mimicry- Ecological dynamics: polymorphism and ecosystems- Biodiversity- Human impact on the environment.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Tech 305 General Enzymology, 2h/W
Definitions- Formation of enzymes- Separation- Purification and distribution of enzymes- Nature of Purified enzyme-Mechanism of enzyme action- Classification of enzymes- Factors affecting enzyme activity.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Tech 306 Molecular Physiology, 2h/W
Introduction- Study of the processes that transfer molecules across membranes- Topics include the different classes of molecular machines that mediate membrane transport- Emphasis on interactions among transport proteins in determining the physiological behavior of cells and tissues- other transport process in the cells- Recent advances in molecular physiology.
Pre-requisite B 202, Practical: 2h/W
 
Tech 307 Tissue culture and plant breeding, 2h/W
Some features of cultured plant cells- Plant propagation: Sexual and vegetative propagation- Hormones- differentiation and control of proliferation in cell and protoplast cultures- Morphogenesis in vitro: studies on regeneration- Isolation- culture and fusion of protoplasts from higher plants- Secondary metabolism in tissue cultures- Embryo and organ culture.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Tech 308 Mineral nutrition and nutrient control, 2h/W
Detection of essential elements- Occurrence of the various elements-Absorption and Translocation of mineral nutrients- Translocation of elements- Advenced aspects in mineral nutrition and control.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Tech 309 Genetic engineering, 2h/W
Basic Molecular Biology- The basic Techniques-Enzymes used in Gene Manipulation- Gene cloning- Application of DNA technology in Biology- Medium and industry.
Pre-requisite B 203, Practical: 2h/W
 
Tech 310 Biotechnology for primary products, 2h/W
Introduction- The principles and application of cellular- molecular and chemical techniques that advance biotechnology- Topics include the most recent tools and strategies used by government agencies- industrial laboratories and academic research to adapt biological and chemical compounds as medical treatments- as industrial agents or for the future study of biological systems.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Tech 311 Molecular genetics, 2h/W
Study of advanced genetics and molecular principles using the plant species as illustration- Tropics include sex determination- molecular basis of gene and chromosome mutation- genome organization- Cancer and the cell cycle- DNA repair and recombination and epigenetic.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Tech 312 Genome and genetic control, 2h/W
describes the determination of the nucleotide sequence and many future analyses to discover functional and structural information on all the gene of an organism- Topics include the methods and results of functional and structural information gene analysis on a genome-wide scale as well as discussion of the implications of this research.Introduction to genetic control – characterization – mode of action – methods and tools recent advances in genetic control.
Practical: 2h/W
 
ES 321 Molecular biology and biotechnology, 2h/W
Introduction to molecular biology and biotechnology – molecular biology advances – recent advances in biotechnology – biotechnology in industry –medicine and agriculture.
Practical: 2h/W
 
ES 322 Plant geography and flora of Egypt, 2h/W
Plant geography(1h/W),Definition, Ultimate purpose of phytogeography - Dispersal- Barriers- Types of plant distribution- Endemisas- Relic areas- Habitat types- Latitudinal and Altitudinal distribution of plants- Environment and plant geography.
Flora of Egypt (1h/W),Ecological characteristics of Egypt- Historical notes on the flora of Egypt- Western desert and its flora- The Sinai peninsula and its flora- The Nile region and its flora- Pharaonic plants- Drug plants- Ornamentals- Fodders and medicinal plants.
Practical: 2h/W
 
ES 323 Ecology of hydrophytes, 2h/W
Introduction – Ecosystems – Ecology of Hydrophytes – Classification – nomenclatures – Characterization – Recent advances in ecology of hydrophytes.
Practical: 2h/W
 
ES 324 Plant Communities and Desert Habitats, 2h/W
A-Plant Communities (1h/W), Community concepts and attributes - Community Composition – Methods of sampling the plant community - Methods of Describing the plant community.
B-Desert habitats (1h/W), Desert Classification – Desert Geography – Aridity in desert – Plants in desert and their characters - Desert creeping and desertification – Cultivation of deserts in the aird lands – Effect of desert environment on population and their activities and habits.
Practical: 2h/W
 
ES 325 Physiology of Stress and Biocontrol, 2h/W
Introduction – Stress Phenomena- Types of stress – Physiological stress – Mechanisms of stress tolerance – recent advances in stress physiology – biocontrol of stress – mechanisms of biocontrol.
Practical: 2h/W
 
ES 326 Producing ecosystem and pollen grain, 2h/W
Structure of ecosystem, Components of ecosystem, Function of ecosystem, Major ecosystem, Energy and its flow in ecosystem, Biogeochemical in ecosystem, Food chain and food web in ecosystem, Pollen grains; Identification, Nomenclature and Classification – recent advances in pollen grains.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Fourth level
B 401 Stress physiology, 2h/W
Introduction to the study of stress physiology, Types of stress, water stress: salinity, Osmotic, moisture, drought, water logging, Temperature stress, light stress, chemical stress, physiological effects of stress on germination of seeds, growth pf plants, development, Methods of partly or completely nullify the harmful effects of stress, Antioxidants and stress physiology.
Practical: 2h/W
 
B 402 Physiology of microorganisms , 3h/W
Growth of microorganisms, Kinetics of growth, Nutritional requirements for microbial growth, Metabolism, Carbon metabolism, Respiration, Biosynthesis of carbohydrates, Nitrogen metabolism, Amino acid metabolism, Nitrogen compounds of microorganisms, Protein synthesized, Lipid metabolism, Reproduction, Microbial enzymes.
Practical: 2h/W, Tutorial: 1h/W
 
B 403 General metabolism in plants , 3h/W
Difinitions, Anabolism, Catabolism, Carbohydrate metabolism, Lipid metabolism, Amino acid metabolism, Organic acid metabolism.
Practical: 2h/W, Tutorial: 1h/W
 
B 404 Ecosystem ( soil- air- water) , 2h/W
Integrated levels in ecology, Components of the ecosystem, Trophic levels in the ecosystem, The major ecosystems of the world, Egypt and its main ecosystems.
Practical: 2h/W
 
B 405 Biofertilizers and soil reclamation, 2h/W
a- Biofertilizers (1h/W), Synthetic and biofertilizers, Types of biofertilizers, Synthesis and production of biofertilizer, biofertilizer-plant interaction, Role of biofertilizers in plant growth and development, Advanced aspects in biofertilizers.
b- Soil reclamation (1h/W), Introduction – types of soil –physical and chemical- properties of soil – soil conditioner: fertilizer- natural fertilizer – artificial fertilizer –polymer –recent advances in soil reclamation.
Practical: 2h/W,
 
B 406 Essay and research , 1h/W
At the beginning of the term, the student must submit a form, available in Department, with a written proposal of research and a short bibliography, approved by the research supervisor. During the course students give an oral presentation describing their work. At the end of the term, a final written report on the research done is required before a grade will be given.
Practical: 1h/W
 
B 407 Plant enzymes and energy metabolism, 2h/W
a- Plant enzymes (1h/W), Definitions, Formation, Distribution, Isolation, Nature and properties, Nature of enzyme action, Factors affecting enzyme action, Enzyme co-factors, Inhibitors, Main classes of enzymes, Biological role played by each class.
b- Energy metabolism (1h/W), Introduction to the study of energy metabolism, Bioenergetics in plants, Respiration and photosynthesis, Energy consumption and energy production in plants, Energy coast and metabolic processes in plants, Cellular and subcellular energy levels, Advances in energy metabolism. Practical: 2h/W
 
B 408 Sciences of tissue culture, 2h/W
Isolation of plant material and studies on growth and cell division, Bioassay systems for cytokinins, Plant propagation: Sexual and vegetative propagation, Morphogenesis in vitro: Studies on regeneration, Isolation, Culture and fusion of protoplasts from higher plants, Embryo and organ culture, Callus formation, Transplantation.
Pre-requisite: B 202 Practical: 2h/W
 
B 409 Cytogenetics and microbial genetics , 2h/W
Introduction, Scientific terms, Monohybridinheritance, Dihybrid inheritance, Quantitative inheritance, Cytological basis of inheritance, Identification of genetic material, Environment and gene expression, Mutations, Environmental pollution and its effects on the genetic makeup.
Practical: 2h/W
 
B 410 Plant geography and flora of Egypt, 2h/W
Plant geography(1h/W), Introduction to plant geography, Dispersal, Barriers, Types of plant distribution, Endemisas, Relic areas, Habitat types, Latitudinal and Altitudinal distribution of plants- Recent advances in plant geography.
Flora of Egypt (1h/W), Ecological characteristics of Egypt, Historical notes on the flora of Egypt, Western desert and its flora, The Sinai peninsula and its flora, The Nile region and its flora, Pharaonic plants, Drug plants.
Practical: 2h/W
 
B 411 Virology , 1h/W
Historical background, Nature of viruses, Chemistry of viruses, Morphology, Architecture and structure of viruses, Bacterial viruses, Reproduction of bacterial viruses, processes of infection in animal and plant viruses, Cultivation of animal viruses, Viral pathogenicity, Control of virus infection, Classification of viruses, Virus transmission.
Practical: 2h/W, Tutorial: 1h/W
 
B 412 Soil microbiology and Host-parasite relations , 2h/W
Soil microbiology(1h/W), Soil as reservoir and medium for microorganisms, Microorganisms inhabitating the soil, Role of microorganisms in the natural cycles, Role of microorganisms in the transformation processes, Rhizosphere microflora.
Host-parasite relations(1h/W), Mechanical forces exhibited by pathogens on host tissues, Chemical weapons of pathogens, Growth regulators in plant diseases, Effects of pathogens on certain physiological aspects in the host plant with special reference to effect on cell membranes, Mycorrhizae and plant diseases.
Practical: 2h/W
 
B 413 Plant biochemistry , 2h/W
Molecular principles of structural organization of plant cell: Hertero-macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Phospho-proteins, Metalloproteins, Energetics of biochemical reactions, respiration, photosynthesis and chemosynthesis, energy and water metabolism.
Practical: 2h/W
 
B414 Enzymology and General Metabolim, 2h/W
a- Enzymology (1h/W), Definitions, Formation, Distribution, Isolation, Nature and properties, Nature of enzyme action, Factors affecting enzyme action, Enzyme co-factors, Inhibitors, Main classes of enzymes, Biological role played by each class.
b- General metabolism (1h/W),Difinitions, Anabolism, Catabolism, Carbohydrate metabolism, Lipid metabolism, Amino acid metabolism, Organic acid metabolism.
Practical: 2h/W
 
B 415 Mycology, diseases control and Host- parasite relationship , 2h/W
Definition of diseases, Diseases indicated by plasmodiphoro-mycetes, Diseases indicated by chytridiomycetes, Diseases indicated by ocmycetes, Diseases indicated by zygomycetes,Diseases indicated by Ascomycetes, Different types of control at plant diseases, Genetic control of plant diseases.
Practical: 2h/W
 
B 416 Essay and research, 1h/W
At the beginning of the term, the student must submit a form, available in Department, with a written proposal of research and a short bibliography, approved by the research supervisor. During the course students give an oral presentation describing their work. At the end of the term, a final written report on the research done is required before a grade will be given.
Practical: 1h/W
 
B 417 Ecosystem, plant ecology and pollution , 2h/W
a- Ecosystem: Integrated levels in ecology, Components of the ecosystem, Trophic levels in the ecosystem, The major ecosystems of the world, Egypt and its main ecosystems.
c- Plant Ecology: Definition of plant ecology, The vegetation and its evolution, Plant succession, Classification of plants according to their water, Definition of soil, Soil parent material, Soil formation, Physical and chemical properties of soil, Soil solution, Soil organic matter and humus, Soil microorganisms.
D- Pollution: Environmental pollution – Significant- Adaptation – Recent advances in Environmental pollution.
Pre-requisite B 201, Practical: 2h/W
 
B 418 Cell ultrastructure and Cytogenetics, 2h/W
a- Cell ultrastructure (1h/W), Historical review, ultrastructure of the cell, ultrastructure of cell membranes, ultrastructure of cytoplasmic organelles, ultrasturcture of nucleus.
Cytogenetics: (1h/W), Introduction, scientific terms, monohybrid inheritance-mechanism, Dihybrid inheritance, quantitative inheritance, Multiple allelic series, Pleiotrophic gene effect, nucleic acids, Environment and gene expression, Mutations, Advanced tropic in general genetics.
Practical: 2h/W
 
B 419 Mineral nutrition and Physiology of microorganisms, 1h/W
a- Mineral nutrition, Sources of mineral salts, composition of plant ash, Essential and non-essential elements, Occurrence available forms, Functions, Deficiency symptoms of major and minor elements, Brief discussion on mineral salt absorption and translocation.
b- Physiology of microorganisms, Growth of microorganisms, Kinetics of growth, Nutritional requirements for microbial growth, Metabolism, Carbon metabolism, Respiration, Biosynthesis of carbohydrates, Nitrogen metabolism, Amino acid metabolism, Nitrogen compounds of microorganisms, Protein synthesid, Lipid metabolism, Reproduction, Microbial enzymes.
Practical: 2h/W, Tutorial: 1h/W
 
B 420 Plant geography- flora of Egypt- plant Community, 2h/W
a-Plant geography, Definition, Ultimate purpose of phytogeography, Dispersal, Barriers, Types of plant distribution, Endemisas, Relic areas, Habitat types, Latitudinal and Altitudinal distribution of plants.Flora of Egypt , cological characteristics of Egypt, Historical notes on the flora of Egypt, Western desert and its flora, The Sinai peninsula and its flora, The Nile region and its flora, Pharaonic plants, Drug plants.
c- Plant Community,General definition, units of vegetation, Field studies of vegetation; Analytic characteristics of community, Synthetic characteristics of community.
Practical: 2h/W
 
B 421 Biotechnology , 2h/W
An introduction to biotechnology, substrates for biotechnology, genetics and biotechnology, bioprocess/fermentation technology, enzyme technology, biological fuel generation, single cell protein, Biotechnology and medicine, Biotechnology in agricultural and forestry industries, Food and beverage biotechnology, Biotechnology and production of biopolymers from higher plants and from microorganisms.
Practical: 2h/W
 
M 401 Physiology of Microorganisms , 2h/W
Introduction - Growth, Mechanics of growth in bacteria, yeasts and multicellular fungi, Measurement of Microbial growth, Kinetics of growth, Nutritional requirements for microbial growth, Metabolism: carbon metabolism, Nitrogen metabolism, Lipid metabolism, Reproduction, enzymes- Recent advances in microbial physiology.
Pre-requisite B 204, Practical: 2h/W
 
M 403 Fermentations and fermentation industries , 2h/W
Introduction, Principles of microbial growth, The bioreactor/fermenter, Scale-up, Media design for fermentation processes, solid substrate fermentation, Technology of mammalian and plant cell culture, Downstrenm Processing, Advanced aspects industrial fermentation.
Pre-requisite B 204, Practical: 2h/W
 
M 404 Essay and research , 2h/W
At the beginning of the term, the student must submit a form, available in Department, with a written proposal of research and a short bibliography, approved by the research supervisor. During the course students give an oral presentation describing their work. At the end of the term, a final written report on the research done is required before a grade will be given.
Practical: 1h/W
 
M 405 Mycology, diseases control and host-parasite relations , 2h/W
Definition of disease in plants, Pathogenesis, Classification of plant Diseases , Diseases incited by Phanerogamic Parasites, Diseases incited by Nematodes, Diseases incited by viruses, Diseases incited by Bacteria, Diseases incited by fungi, the various control measure of plant diseases, Advanced aspects in plant diseases and control.
Practical: 2h/W
 
M 406 Genetics and Cytogenetics, 2h/W
Introduction, scientific terms, Monohybrid inheritance-mechanism, Dihybrid inheritance, Quantitative inheritance, Multiple allelic series, Pleiotrphic gene effect, Nucleic acids, Environment and gene expression, Mutations, Advanced Tropic in general genetics.
Practical: 2h/W
 
M 407 Industrial and Applied Microbiology, 2h/W
Introduction, Basis and development of industrial fermentation processes, typical fermentation processes, Outlook for industrial microbiology.
Pre-requisite B 204, Practical: 2h/W
 
M 408 Cell physiology and genetic Control, 2h/W
a- Cell physiology (1h/W), Introduction, Structure of Cell organelles, Main physiological functions of cell organelles, Related metabolic processes in the cell, Control of cell metabolism.
b- Genetic Control (1h/W), Transfer of genetic information and protein biosynthesis, Molecular fundamentals of replication, Molecular fundamentals of transcription, Post-transcriptional alterations in RNA, Genetic code and its characterization.
Pre-requisite B 102, Practical: 2h/W
 
M 409 Biotechnology , 2h/W
Introduction – definition –biotechnological industries – production of material –Design and types of bioreactors - kinetics of fermentation process - scale up fermentation, Biotechnology and medical and pharmaceutical products, plant cell and mammalian cell cultures, applications in agriculture .
Practical: 2h/W
 
M 410 Metabolism and metabolic processes , 2h/W
Definations, Anabolic processes, catabolic processes, Interactions between carbohydrate and organic acid metabolism, Energy metabolism, Bioenergetics, photosymthetic mechinary, recent advances.
Pre-requisite B 102, Practical: 2h/W
 
M 411 Geneomics and Biosafety ,2h/W
Geneomics: (1h/W), Sequencing strategies of a whole genome, correlate genome to function and structure of an organism , Basics of bioinformatics , use of gene banks , Defoaming of a whole genome.
Biosafety (1 h/W), Principles – method- investigation – adjustment of biosafety – Egyptian biosafety law – recent advances in biosafety – recent advances in biosafety, detection and monitoring of genetically modified organisms.
Pre-requisite B 203, Tutorial: 1h/W
 
M 412 Instruments and microbial techniques , 2h/W
Introduction, Fermentation equipment and its uses, Automatic DNA sequencers, PCR, RT-PCR, DNA synthesistizer, microarrays gel documentation systems.
Practical: 2h/W
 
M 413 Plant Biochemistry (2) , 2h/W
Introduction, Molecular principles of structural organization of the cell: Carbohydrates, proteins and Amino acids, Lipids, Hetermacromolecules: Carbohydrate-protein complex, Lipid-protein complex, Phospo-Proteins, Metalloproteins, Characterization of metabolism and energy metabolism, Energetics of biochemical reactions, Bioenergetics – Recent advances in plant biochemistry.
Practical: 2h/W
 
M 414 Plant tissue culture, 1h/W
Introduction-Techniques used for tissue culture- Types of media – Micropropagation- Callus formation – Using tissue culture for plant breeding – Recent advances in plant tissue culture.
Practical: 2h/W, Tutorial: 1h/W
 
Tech 401 Technology of nutrients cultures , 2h/W
Introduction- A biomass strategy- Natural raw materials- Availability of by-products- Chemical and pertrochemical feedstocks- Raw materials and the future of biotechnology- Types of nutrient cultures- mineral nutrients- Advanced technology in nutrients cultures.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Tech 402 Technology of secondary metabolites production , 2h/W
Introduction- Production of pharmaceuticals and biopharmaceuticals- Antibiotics- Voccines and monoclonal antibodies- Biophormaceuticals- Gene Therapy- advanced aspects in production of secondary products.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Tech 403 Essay and research ,1h/W for 2 terms
Students will carry out research projects and incorporate their own projects into the Lab. The projects covering the following topics: microarray analysis- Plant genetic engineering- imaging/microscopy- ribozyme enzymol./ engineering- Phage display/Chemical biology- Production of biopolymers and macromolecules biology- Production of Biopolymers and macromolecules.
 
Tech 404Plant biochemistry , 2h/W
Introduction to plant biochemistry; Carbohydrates- Proteins and amino acids- Lipids- Acrteromacromolecules; Carbohydrate-Proteins complex- Lipid-Protein complex- Phospho-Proteins- Metalloproteins- Characterization of metabolism and energy metabolism.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Tech 405 Industrial technology , 2h/W
Introduction – biotechnological product – technology of industrial product – food technology – drug – fermentation technology- medical technology – industrial technology –recent advances.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Tech 406 Applied technology of enzymes , 2h/W
Introduction- The nature of enzymes- The application of enzymes- Genetic engineering and protein engineering of enzymes- The technology of enzyme production- Immobilized enzymes.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Tech 407 Technology of biofertilizers production , 2h/W
Introduction- Algal technology- Production of algal biofertilizers- biofertlizers- Types and mode of action- Production of biofertilizers from blue-green algae- Application of biofertilizer and biosafety- Advanced aspects in Algal technology.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Tech 408 Applied industrial technology , 2h/W
Single cell proteins (SCP)- The need for proteins- Acceptability and toxicology of SCP- SCP desired from high energy sources- SCP from wastes- SCP from agricultural crops- SCP from algal- The economic - implication of SCP- Biological fuel generation: Photosynthesis-The ultimate energy resource- Sources of biomass- Ethanol from biomass- Methane from biomass- Hydrogen.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Tech 409 Fermentation technology , 2h/W
Introduction- Principles of microbial growth- The bioreactor/fermentor- Scale-up- Media design for fermentation processes- Solid substrate formation- Technology of plant culture- Downs stream processing.
Pre-requisite B 204, Practical: 2h/W
 
Tech 410 Genomics and bioinformatics, 2h/W
Genomics (1h/W ), Describes the determination of the nucleotide sequence and many future analyses to discover functional and structural information on all the gene of an organism- Topics include the methods and results of functional and structural information gene analysis on a genome-wide scale as well as discussion of the implications of this research.
Bioinformatics (1h/W), Describes the computational analysis of genomes and macromolecular structures on a large-Scale- Tropics include sequence alignment- biological database design- geometric analysis of protein structures and macromolecular simulation.
Pre-requisite B 203, Tutorial: 1h/W
 
 
Tech 411 Applied technology of secondary metabolites , 2h/W
Introduction- Techniques for the production of pharmaoleutical and biopharmaceuticals- Techniques in the production of secondary metabolites- Recent advances in technology of production of secondary metabolites.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Tech 412 Quality specifications and biosafety , 2h/W
Introduction- Quality specifications- Production of biological invitations; Patent protection- Trade secrets- Plant breeder's rights- Safety in biotechnology: Interaction- Problem of organism pathologicity- Problems of biological active biotechnology products.
Practical: 2h/W
 
ES 422 Waste Management and Environmental Diseases , 2h/W
Introduction – Disposables – types – characterization –Management – control – Environmental diseases – symptoms – Description – recent advances.
Practical: 2h/W
 
ES 423 Cell ultrastructure and cell metabolism, 2h/W
a- Cell Ultrastructure, Historical review- ultrastructure of the cell- ultrastructure of cell membranes- ultrastructure of cytoplasmic organelles- ultrasturcture of nucleus.
b- Cell metabolism, Introduction- Structure of Cell organelles- Main physiological functions of cell organelles- Related metabolic processes in the cell- Control of cell metabolism.
Practical: 2h/W
 
ES 424 Marine ecology and environmental pollution, 2h/W
Introduction – Marine ecology – Identification and characterization – Environmental pollution – Significant- Adaptation – Recent advances.
Practical: 2h/W
 
ES 425 Soil , 2h/W
Introduction and definition- Soil formation- the soil profile and its layers- Soil classification- Soil physical properties- Soil colloids and chemical properties- the soil reaction (pH)- Soil biology and ecology- Soil factors for plant growth- Essential plant nutrients- trace elements in soil- Concept and use of bioavailability in environmental soil assessment.
Practical: 2h/W
 
ES 426 General plant metabolism , 2h/W
Definitions- Anabolism- Catabolism- Carbohydrate metabolism- Lipid metabolism- Amino acid metabolism- Organic acid metabolism.
Practical: 2h/W
 
ES 427 Conservation of Natural Resources and Genetics of Plant Communities, 2h/W
A- Conservation of natural resources , Definition of natural resources- classification of natural resources- conservation and management of natural resources- land resource management- water resource management- wetland resource management- Air resource management- Agriculture and forestly resource management- Rangeland resource management- wildlife and livestock resource management- fish resource management- energy resources management. B- Genetics of plant communities, The genetic basis of variation- Isolating mechanisms- Population genetics- Quantitative genetics- Cytoplasmic or extra-nuclear inheritance- Evolutionary genetics.
Practical: 2h/W
, 2h/W
A- Conservation of natural resources , Definition of natural resources- classification of natural resources- conservation and management of natural resources- land resource management- water resource management- wetland resource management- Air resource management- Agriculture and forestly resource management- Rangeland resource management- wildlife and livestock resource management- fish resource management- energy resources management. B- Genetics of plant communities, The genetic basis of variation- Isolating mechanisms- Population genetics- Quantitative genetics- Cytoplasmic or extra-nuclear inheritance- Evolutionary genetics.
Practical: 2h/W

 

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