Geology Courses Content

 

First Level

G101 Physical and Historical geology, 2h/W
Physical geology: Introduction to the study of the Earth Science and its branches – Theories on the origin of the Universe, the Solar System and the Earth – The atmosphere, the hydrosphere, the lithosphere and the Earth's interior – The Earth's crust – Plate tectonic and the origin of mountains and oceans – Geologic processes shaping the Earth's surface: External processes; Weathering (physical and chemical), wind action and sand dunes, running water (rainfall, rivers and deltas), groundwater and its geologic action, waves and current actions in coastal areas, glacial erosion – Tectonic movements and the internal processes – Structures – Earthquake belts, intensity of earthquake – Volcanicity. Laboratory studies of topographic and geologic maps.
Historical geology: Introduction to the earth’s history, origin of the Earth and its place in the solar system, the most important events (e.g. orogenic, biologic, sedimentation, climatic, etc.) occurred during the geologic history of the earth starting from the Precambrian to the present time. Course syllabus includes also origin of the atmosphere and ocean, origin of life on the earth, orbital forcing and its effect on the earth’s climate, Earth’s age-dating, and sedimentary environments. Precambrian, Early Paleozoic (Cambrian-Devonian), Late Paleozoic (Carboniferous-Permian), Triassic-Jurassic, Cretaceous, Paleogene-Neogene important events, the Messinian salinity crisis. Quaternary history of mammals and first appearance of man. Extinct fossil groups and vertebrate evolution.
Practical : 2h/W 

 
G102 Crystallography and Mineralogy, 2h/W
Crystallography: Definition and crystal parts, interfacial angles and their law, crystallographic elements, crystal symmetry, crystal habit and forms, crystal aggregates, crystal systems, holohedral and hemihedral forms, hemimorphism and enantiomorphism, axial ratios-crystal parameters and Miller indices, zone, zone axes and zone symbols and law. General description of the crystal systems. Stereographic projection. Practical examination of models representing crystal forms of seven crystal systems.
Mineralogy: Definitions – Physical and chemical properties of minerals – Chemical compositions – Origin of minerals – Classification of minerals – Minerals of the Earth's crust – Mineral associations in rocks and ore deposits - Description of crystal forms; genesis, field occurrences and uses of some important minerals. Laboratory investigation of hand specimens representing the major mineral groups.
Practical : 2h/W
 
Second Level
G201 Invertebrate macropaleontology, 1h/W
Invertebrate macropaleontological course includes; Introduction, definitions, zoological nomenclature, how fossils are formed and preserved, explanation of geologic time, how fossils are used in paleoecology and evolution, collecting and preparing fossils, trace fossils, how to identify fossils. Systematic study of invertebrate macrofossil Phyla: Porifera, Cnidaria, Bryozoa, Brachiopoda, Annelida, Mollusca, Echinodermata and Arthropoda.
Practical : 2h/W
 
G202 Optical mineralogy and Rock-forming minerals, 2h/W
Optical mineralogy: The polarizing microscope – preparation of microscopic thin sections in rocks and minerals - Optics of isotropic minerals and their indicatrix – Measuring the refractive index – Optics of anisotropic minerals: Uniaxial, biaxial and their indicatrix – Optical properties of minerals in plane polarized light and between crossed Nicols – Interference colors – Optical orientation and extinction angle – Interference figures . Microscopic examination of thin sections made in selected minerals including description and identification.
Rock-forming minerals: Definition, classification and atomic structure of silicate rock-forming minerals. Physical and chemical properties of silicate minerals. Their origin, paragenesis, occurrence and industrial uses. Nesosilicates and sorosilicates (olivine group, garnet group, sphene, zircon, Epidote), Insosilicates (single chain pyroxenes, double chain amphiboles), phyllosilicates (mica group, serpentine group, chlorite group), Tectosilicates (silica group, feldspars and feldspathoids). Practical examination of thin sections made in different rocks to recognize the rock-forming minerals.
Practical : 2h/W
 
G203 Petrology, 2h/W
Definitions – Rock cycle – Classification of rocks in the Earth's crust – Igneous rocks: magma and magmatic differentiation, various styles of volcanic activity, field occurrence, textures, structures, classification and description of some common igneous rocks. Sedimentary rocks: weathering, erosion, transportation, deposition, classification and description of some common detrital and non-detrital sedimentary rocks. Metamorphic rocks: Metamorphic agents and processes, metamorphic grade and type of metamorphism. Laboratory investigation and description of hand specimens representing different rocks.
Practical : 2h/W
 
G204 Structural geology, 2h/W
Introduction: Composition of the Earth - Isostasy of the Earth- Forces in the Earth's crust- Different types of structures. Stress: Definition - Types- Uni-axial stress- Plane stress- Stress in 3D - Mohr circle uses in stress analysis - Mohr envelope - Factors controlling the brittle failure of the rocks. Strain: Definition – Types - Strain in 2D - Strain in 3D - Mohr circle uses in the strain analysis - Strain markers analysis. Structural elements, classification, methods of representation. Joints, classification, kinematics of jointing. Faults, definition, classification, kinematics of faulting, criteria of faults recognition, fault mechanics solution. Folds: Definitions - Classifications, Fold mechanisms - Criteria of fold recognitions, superimposed folding. Types of discontinuities and Unconformities. Shear zones and shear sense indicators. Analysis of structural data with geological maps as practicals.
Practical : 2h/W
 
G205 Sedimentation and Sedimentary petrology, 2h/W
Sedimentation: The origin of sediment grains: Terriginous clastic grains, calcium carbonate grains, evaporites, biogenic silica and phosphates, grain properties. Fluid flow and sediment transport, fluid properties and fluid motion, transport of sediment grains, sediment gravity flows. Bed forms and sedimentary structures: Bed forms and structures in granular sediments, bed forms caused by erosion of cohesive sediment, biogenic and organic–sedimentary structures, soft sediment deformation structures.
Sedimentary petrology: Introduction - Sedimentary cycle - Classification of sedimentary rocks - Physical properties and textures - Sedimentary structures - Clastic sedimentary rocks: Conglomerates & breccias, sandstones and mud rocks. Non-clastic sedimentary rocks: carbonates, evaporites, chert, phosphorites, coal and iron-rich sedimentary rocks. Genesis and diagenesis of clastic, carbonate and chemical rocks. The practical part includes hand specimen and stained thin-section analysis of different rock types.
Practical : 2h/W
 
G206 General stratigraphy, 2h/W
Introduction - Bedding, stratification and layering of rocks - Sea level changes and the sedimentation style - Cyclic successions - Stratigraphic contacts - The use of unconformities in dating geologic events - Relative geologic time and the basic principles of stratigraphy - Definition of some stratigraphic terms - Major types of stratigraphic units: lithostratigraphic units, allosratigrahic units, biostratigraphic units, pedostratigraphic units, chronostratigraphic units, and geochronologic units. Precambrian geography and fossil evidence of early life. The geologic systems; nomenclature, facies, life, subdivisions, and paleogeography.
Practical : 2h/W
 
G207 Igneous petrology, 2h/W
Introduction and definition of common terms used in igneous petrology, Earth's interior, layers and physical properties, abundance and distribution of igneous rocks and their relation to plate tectonics, textures and structures of igneous rocks, nature, origin, source, crystallization of magma. Magmatic differentiation and fractionation, and types of magma chambers. Classification of igneous rocks, description of different igneous rocks and their petrogensis. Practical examination of hand specimens and thin sections representing the different igneous rocks.
Practical : 2h/W
 
G208 Invertebrate micropaleontology, 1h/W
This course is an introductory survey of the major groups of microfossils, including calcareous, siliceous, phosphatic and organic-walled types (foraminifera, ostracods, pteropods, calcareous nannofossils, radiolarians, diatoms, dinoflagellates, conodonts, etc.). The skeletal anatomy, biology, mode of life, and geologic history of these benthic and planktic, marine and nonmarine organisms are to be reviewed. Applications of micropaleontology to biostratigraphy, paleoecology, paleoceanography, paleoclimatology and environmental geology. Major mass extinction events. Practical studies of the different fossil groups under the microscope in terms of morphology and structure.
Practical : 2h/W
 
Gphy 201 Introduction to geophysics, 2h/W
Introduction, definition and branches of geophysics. Gravity field of the Earth. Geoid, GPS and isostasy. Seismic methods and earthquakes. Magnetic and paleomagnetic methods. Electric and geothermal methods. Borehole geophysics. Practical work of some measured geophysical parameters.
Practical : 2h/W
 
Gphy 202 Gravity prospecting, 2h/W
Introduction to gravity methods. Basic concepts of gravity methods, gravitational force, the Earth's mass and density, gravitational potential, thenormal spheroid and Geoid, units of gravitational acceleration, densities of rocks. Measurement of gravity, absolute measurements; pendulum & free falling, relative measurements; stable & unstable gravity meters. Type of corrections, free-air, Bouguer, topographic, latitude, tides, air pressure, isostatic, Eِtovِos, and instrumental drift. Interpretation of gravity data, ambiguity of gravity, regional and residual anomaly separation and filtering techniques, frequency domain filtering. Calculating of the gravity anomalies of simple shape bodies, depth estimation methods (forward and inverse modeling). Applications of gravity and some case studies of gravity measurements.
Practical : 2h/W
 
Gphy 203 Earthquakes and Earthquake engineering, 2h/W
Earthquakes: definitions, causes & distribution of earthquakes. Seismic waves. Seismographs and seismological observatories. Travel times (tables & curves). Seismograms interpretations. Earthquakes and the Earth's interior. Seismotectonics: Plate boundaries, interplate and intraplate earthquakes. The earthquake cycle. Earthquake prediction. Strong motion seismology. Earthquake effects. Seismic risk. Tsunamis.
Practical : 2h/W
 
Gphy 204 Electric prospecting, 2h/W
Review of the basic theory of electrical and electromagnetic methods. Self potential method and its applications. DC resistively method and its applications. Induced polarization method and its applications. Time domain electromagnetic method and its applications. Frequency domain electromagnetic methods (MT, VLF, and HLEM) and their uses. Joint application of electrical and electromagnetic methods.
Practical : 2h/W
 
 
Gphy 205 Radar and Geothermal prospecting, 2h/W
Introduction to GPR. Ground penetrating radar and its applications. Thermal properties of rocks. Terrestrial heat flow and heat flow measurements and global heat flow data. Heat flow, age and region of anomalous heat flow. Heat production and transfer in the Earth and temperature within the Earth. Thermal prospecting methods and measuring techniques. Examples of geothermal surveys. Geophysical methods and geothermal exploration. Geothermal activities in Egypt and some case studies.
Practical : 2h/W
 
 
Third Level
G301 Metamorphic petrology, 2h/W
Definition, metamorphism, limits and type of metamorphic agents, metamorphic processes, mineral assemblages and textures of metamorphic rocks, metamorphic grade and facies, metapelites, metabasites, metacarbonates and calc-silicates, metaultramafics, ores associated with metamorphic rocks, Examples of metamorphic rocks in Egypt. Practical examination of different types of metamorphic rocks.
Pre-requisite: G202, Practical: 2h/W
 
 
G302 Hydrogeology and Geomorphology, 2h/W
Hydrogeology: Hydrologic cycle and quantifying hydrologic budget. Runoff and stream flow, properties of aquifers, unsaturated flow and recharge. Aquifer characteristics. Principal of groundwater flow. Steady state flow, unsteady radial flow. Non-equilibrium flow. Slug test. Aquifer characterization using field data. Straight line graphical method, non-equilibrium type curve fits. Hydrologic boundaries, geologic terrains. Water chemistry and water quality. Groundwater pollution - Contaminant transport.
Geomorphology: Relation with other subjects - Geomorphic processes - Some fundamental concepts - Tools of geomorphologists - Relief of the Earth - Geomorphic agents and processes - Weathering (physical, chemical and biotic weathering). Geomorphic significance of weathering - Mass wasting and gravity transfer processes - Topography produced by streams in humid regions (running water)- Topography produced by wind in arid regions - Topography produced by waves and currents (coastal landforms). Karsts topography - Ground water geomorphologic features.
Pre-requisite: G101, Practical: 2h/W
 
 
G303 Advanced stratigraphy, 2h/W
Principal categories of stratigraphic units, Magneto-stratigraphy, Seismic-stratigraphy, Correlation in stratigraphy; lithocorrelation, biocorrelation, chronocorrelation, Geologic Time Scale (The Phanerozoic Eon). Mass extinctions and the main causes. Cyclic sedimentation and stacking patterns, sequence stratigraphy without seismic, sequences, Para sequences, systems tracts, facies tracts, lowstand, transgressive and highstand tracts, sequence boundaries, maximum flooding surfaces. Application and examples of sequence stratigraphy on some geologic successions in Egypt.
Pre-requisite: G206, Practical: 2h/W
 
G304 Microfossils and Vertebrate paleontology,2h/W
Microfossils: Introduction, mineral – walled microfossils: Phosphatic (conodonts), siliceous (Radiolaria and marine Diatoms), calcareous (ostracods & calcareous nannofossils). Collection, preparation, preservation and identification of microfossils.
Vertebrate Paleontology: Definitions; Subphylum: Vertebrata contains Superclass: Pisces and Superclass: Tetrapoda (Amphibia, Reptila, Aves and Mammalia). Dinosaur paleobiology and the origin of birds. Major mammalian lineages and Primate origins. Importance of Fayoum province in Egypt as a famous locality for vertebrate fossils. Wadi El-Hitan as a world heritage protectorate in Egypt. Also the study includes examples of each class in the laboratory.
Pre-requisite: G201, Practical: 2h/W
 
G305 Field geology and Geologic surveying, 1h/W
Introduction and plate tectonics, ordering of geologic events. Stratigraphy, correlation and lithofacies maps. Field equipments in geologic mapping. Mapping igneous rocks, mapping sedimentary rocks. Geologic cross-sections and map interpretation, applied geologic problems.
Pre-requisite: G203, Practical: 2h/W, Tutorial: 1h/W
 
G306 Geochemistry, 2h/W
Structure and composition of the Earth's Interior, primary geochemical differentiation of the Earth, geochemical classification of elements, crystal chemistry, atomic substitutions, geochemistry of igneous rocks, geochemical environment, sedimentation and geochemistry of sedimentary rocks, chemical alteration and physical parameters controlling the alteration, metamorphism and geochemistry of metamorphic rocks, the geochemical cycle, chemical composition of meteorites. Uses of stable isotope geochemistry. Practical calculation of the Niggli's Values and CIPW-normative minerals to identify the igneous rocks.
Pre-requisite: G203, Practical: 2h/W
 
G307 Geotectonics, 2h/W
Plate tectonic theory: Definition, plate boundaries, continental drifts, convergent plate boundaries, divergent plate boundaries, transform plate boundaries, plate tectonics and petroleum accumulation, plate tectonics and magma activity. Extensional structural setting: Extensional gashes and its analysis, boudinage structures and its analysis. Normal, gravity and listric faults, Pull-apart tectonic setting, analysis of extensional and trans-tensional structures. Examples of extensional domains and its structural analysis. Extensional tectonics and related magmatism. Compressional structural setting: Thrust tectonics, thrust nappe geometry, tectonic analysis of compressional-transpressional domains. Examples of compressional tectonic domains. Compressional tectonics related magmatism. Wrench system: Examples of wrench systems, analysis of wrench system and wrench system-related magmatism.
Pre-requisite: G204, Practical: 2h/W
 
G308 Engineering geology, 2h/W
Introduction – Classification of rocks – Physical properties of rocks – Construction, ornamental and pavement rocks – Mechanical properties of rocks: Deformation of rocks (uniaxial, biaxial and triaxial stresses) – Stress-strain curves. Geologic structures: Faults, mechanism and recognition – Folds, mechanism, classification and recognition – Engineering importance of joints, faults and folds – Soil mechanics (physical and chemical weathering) – Soil formation and characters of the soil profile – groundwater problems – Earthquakes – Landslides - Engineering problems associated with soils (foundations and tunnels) – Geology of dams and reservoir sites.
Pre-requisite: G204, Tutorial: 1h/W
 
G309 Subsurface geology and Petroleum geology, 2h/W
Subsurface geology: Definition, application of subsurface geology, pure scientific value, prospecting and exploration of economic importance. Construction purposes. Information needed for subsurface evaluation. Sources of subsurface geological data. Methods for subsurface geology. Drilling (structural, stratigraphic and drilling for other purposes). Geophysical methods. Geochemical methods. Factors affecting geochemical subsurface interpretation. Correlation (local and regional). Main methods of correlation: lithologic correlation, paleontologic correlation and geochronologic correlation. Facies, nature of facies, facies analysis. Subsurface maps.
Petroleum geology: Introduction and definitions. Exploration methods for hydrocarbon: surface occurrences (direct indication); seepages, springs and exuding bitumen. Mud volcanoes and mud flow. Bitumen impregnated sediments. Vug and cavity fillings. Kerogen shale and oil shale. Origin of petroleum: organic theory of origin of petroleum and its evidences. Conditions of hydrocarbon genesis – functions of bacteria in oil formation. Migration of oil and gas: Primary and secondary migrations. Evidences in support of oil migration. Accumulation of oil (oil traps): structural traps: fold, faults and fissures; Stratigraphic traps: (reefs, sand lenses and facies change); Secondary traps: due to ground water activity; Secondary traps due to unconformity, truncation and sealing; and Combination traps.
Pre-requisite: G205, Practical: 2h/W
 
G310 Reservoir characteristics, 2h/W
Introduction and definitions. Classification. Clastic reservoir rocks. Non-clastic reservoir rocks. Reservoir pore space. Porosity and permeability of the reservoir. Reservoir fluids: water, oil and gas. Diagenesis of reservoir rocks. Reservoir traps. Tools used in studying reservoir. Laboratory exercises on some petroliferous provinces.
Pre-requisite: G205, Practical: 2h/W
 
G311 Environmental geology and Facies analysis, 2h/W
Environmental Geology: Introduction – Atmosphere – Lithosphere – Hydrosphere – Biosphere – Environment and human activities – Global warming and sea level rise – Greenhouse effect – Coastal erosion – Shoreline protection – Pollution in urban areas due to industrial and mining activities – Groundwater pollution due to extensive use of fertilizers and insecticides – Water-logging problems – Sand dune migration – Environmental Impact Assessment – Examples from Egypt and other countries.
Introduction to depositional systems and facies: Continental environments and facies analysis. Deserts, alluvial fans, river plains, lakes, glacial environments. Coastal and shelf environments: Physical processes, Delta estuaries, Linear clastic shorelines, clastic shelves. Carbonate–evaporite shorelines, shelves and basins. Oceanic environments, oceanic processes, clastic oceanic environments, pelagic oceanic environments.
Pre-requisite: G205, Practical: 2h/W
 
G312 Geochemistry and geochemical prospecting, 2h/W
Geochemical classification of elements. Chemical equilibriums: acids and bases. Solubility of solids, activities, carbonates equilibriums, K-Feldspar - Kaolinite reactions. Thermodynamics, mineral stability diagrams, clay minerals. Organic materials in geochemistry. Oxidation–reduction reactions and Eh-pH diagrams. Stable isotopes and isotopic fractionation of H, C, O, and S. Applications in geochemical explorations.
Pre-requisite: G203, Practical: 2h/W
 
G313 Palynology, 2h/W
The course of palynology aims at: Definition of the subject- Historical matters- Purposes- Disadvantages and limitations- The natural history of palynomorphs- Spores/pollen morphology- Methods of study- Applied palynology and case studies from Egypt. Practical sessions focus on studying palynomorphs from the Precambrian to Holocene from Egypt, NE Africa and the Middle East in addition to presenting data quantitatively in the form of figures.
Pre-requisite: G208, Practical: 2h/W
 
G314 Mineral and ore analysis, 2h/W
Introduction, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), differential thermal analyses (DTA), inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Cathodoluminscence microscopy (CL), stable isotopes analyses and staining, and electron microprobe analyses (EMP) techniques. Practical course includes identifications of clay and other minerals using XRD, EMP and DTA.
Pre-requisite: G203, Practical: 2h/W
 
G315 Principles of economic geology, 2h/W
Economic Geology: Definition of mineral deposits, ore, grade of ore, ore mineral utility and strategic mineral deposits, exhaustion of mineral deposits, economic evaluation of mineral deposits, metallogenic provinces, metallogenic epoch. Genetic classification of mineral deposits, plate tectonic theory and formation of ore deposits. Endogenic deposits, magmatic mineral deposits, hydrothermal mineral deposits, pneumatolytic mineral deposits, metamorphic mineral deposits, sedimentary mineral deposits. Tectonic history of Egypt, Precambrian mineral deposits in Egypt, Phanerozoic mineral deposits in Egypt. Ornamental, building and industrial stones. Gemstones. Examples of some Egyptian economic mineral deposits.
Pre-requisite: G102, Practical: 2h/W
 
G316 Marine geology, 2h/W
Introduction and aim of the course. Ocean floor morphology and plate tectonics. Ocean water circulation and its driving force. Physical and chemical properties of ocean water, geochemical cycling in the water column and in the oceanic crust. Ocean sediments and their environments of deposition and diagenesis after burial. Importance of microfossils, stratigraphy and isotopes in paleoclimatology and paleoceanography of the ocean. Laboratory works include the description and application of the modern instrumental methods used for analysing ocean waters and sediments, coring and determination of ocean floor bathymetry.
Pre-requisite: G101, Tutorial: 1h/W
 
G317 Subsurface geology1h/W
Definition, application of subsurface geology, pure scientific value, prospecting and exploration of economic importance. Construction purposes. Information needed for subsurface evaluation. Sources of subsurface geological data. Methods for subsurface geology. Drilling (structural, stratigraphic and drilling for other purposes). Geophysical methods. Geochemical methods. Factors affecting geochemical subsurface interpretation. Correlation (local and regional). Main methods of correlation: lithologic correlation, paleontologic correlation and geochronologic correlation. Facies, nature of facies, facies analysis. Subsurface maps.
Pre-requisite: G204, Practical: 2h/W
 
G318 Petroleum geology, 2h/W
Introduction and definitions. Exploration methods for hydrocarbon: surface occurrences (direct indication); seepages, springs and exuding bitumen. Mud volcanoes and mud flow. Bitumen impregnated sediments. Vug and cavity fillings. Kerogen shale and oil shale. Origin of petroleum: organic theory of origin of petroleum and its evidences. Conditions of hydrocarbon genesis – functions of bacteria in oil formation. Migration of oil and gas: Primary and secondary migrations. Evidences in support of oil migration. Accumulation of oil (oil traps): structural traps: fold, faults and fissures; Stratigraphic traps: (reefs, sand lenses and facies change); Secondary traps: due to ground water activity; Secondary traps due to unconformity, truncation and sealing; and Combination traps.
Tutorial: 1h/W
 
Gphy301 General geophysics, 2h/W
Introduction, definition and branches of geophysics. Gravity field of the Earth. Geoid's, GPS and isostasy. Seismic methods and earthquakes. Magnetic and paleomagnetic methods. Electric and geothermal methods. Borehole geophysics. Practical work of some measured geophysical parameters.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Gphy302 Introduction to well-logging, 2h/W
Introduction to borehole geophysics. Borehole environment and basis of recording logs. Review of electrical properties of rocks, theories and uses of electrical logs. Review of radioactive properties of rocks, theories and applications of radioactive logs. Review of acoustic properties of rocks and theory and applications of sonic logs. Thermal properties of rocks, theory and applications of thermal logs. Other types of wire line logs. Combination and quick look interpretation of the different types of wire line logs. Applications of well logging in different fields.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Gphy303 Seismic prospecting-1, 2h/W
Refraction seismic definition. Refraction basics: Types of seismic waves, wave propagation, wave interaction with boundaries, Snell's law, velocities and rock properties. Seismic velocities of common earth materials.Travel-time curves, first arrivals, determining earth structure from travel times,derivation of travel time equation. Refraction seismic equipment and field procedures:Equipment overview, types of seismic sources, seismometers or geophones, recording ground displacement at several offsets simultaneously, recording systems, sources of noise. Interpretation of refraction data. Advantages and disadvantages of refraction and reflection methods.
Pre-requisite: Gphy201, Practical: 2h/W
 
Gphy304 Seismic prospecting-2, 2h/W
Basic reflection seismic theory: Seismic wave propagation; wave length, frequency, velocity, reflection coefficient, polarity, absorption and resolution. Various techniques of exploration seismology: Refraction, diffraction and reflection. Seismic data acquisition on land: Sources, basic field equipments and layout. Seismic data acquisition at sea: Sources, receivers, and instruments. Interpretation of 2-D seismic reflection data; Geological structures, mapping, contouring and modeling. Fundamental of geophysical analysis, digital processing methods applied to seismic data. Description of 3-D seismic technique.
Pre-requisite: Gphy201, Practical: 2h/W
 
Gphy305 Paleomagnetism, 2h/W
Physical basis,fundamentals of rock and mineral magnetism, common magnetic minerals and their identification, studying climatic changes through magnetic properties of sediments and soils, sampling and measurements, statistical analysis, geomagnetic applications, reversals of magnetization, geological applications.
Pre-requisite: Gphy201, Practical: 2h/W
 
Gphy306 Magnetic and Geothermal prospecting, 2h/W
Magnetic Prospecting: Physical basis, magnetic properties of natural minerals, magnetization of rocks, magnetism of the Earth, geomagnetic field instruments, magnetic field survey, correction of the magnetometer variations, qualitative and quantitative interpretation of magnetic data, applications and case studies.
Geothermal Prospecting: Thermal properties of rocks. Terrestrial heat flow and heat flow measurements and global heat flow data. Heat flow, age and region of anomalous heat flow. Heat production and transfer in the Earth and temperature within the Earth. Thermal prospecting methods and measuring techniques. Examples of geothermal surveys. Geophysical methods and geothermal exploration. Geothermal activities in Egypt and some case studies.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Gphy 307 Magnetic and Electric prospecting, 2h/W
Magnetic prospecting:Physical basis, magnetic properties of natural minerals, magnetization of rocks, magnetism of the Earth, geomagnetic field instruments, magnetic field survey, correction of the magnetometer variations, qualitative and quantitative interpretation of magnetic data, applications and case studies.
Electric prospecting:Review of the basic theory of electrical and electromagnetic methods. Self potential method and its applications. DC resistively method and its applications. Induced polarization method and its applications. Time domain electromagnetic method and its applications. Frequency domain electromagnetic methods (MT, VLF, and HLEM) and their uses. Ground penetrating radar and its application. Joint application of electrical and electromagnetic methods.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Gphy308 Magnetic prospecting, 2h/W
Physical basis, magnetic properties of natural minerals, magnetization of rocks, magnetism of the Earth, geomagnetic field instruments, magnetic field survey, correction of the magnetometer variations, qualitative and quantitative interpretation of magnetic data, applications and case studies.
Pre-requisite: Gphy201, Practical: 2h/W
 
Fourth Level
G400 Research project and essay in Geology, 1h/W for 2 terms
Reviewing a research project in geology to be selected by the department, preparing a written essay on it (continuous in the two terms).
 
G-Chem 418 Research project and essay in Geology, 1h/W
Reviewing a research project in geology to be selected by the department, preparing a written essay on it (Second Term, for Geology-Chemistry students).
 
G401 Environmental geology and Geoarcheology, 2h/W
Environmental Geology: Introduction – Atmosphere – Lithosphere – Hydrosphere – Biosphere – Environment and human activities – Global warming and sea level rise – Greenhouse effect – Coastal erosion – Shoreline protection – Pollution in urban areas due to industrial and mining activities – Groundwater pollution due to extensive use of fertilizers and insecticides – Water-logging problems – Sand dune migration – Environmental Impact Assessment – Examples from Egypt and other countries.
Geo-archeology: Introduction - Principles and techniques – Pre-historic man (Paleolithic and Neolithic) implements - Water logged sites – tailoring GIS software for archeological application – Application of Palynology to Archeology - Geophysical and geochemical analyses of archeological sites – Faunal and floral assemblages in Holocene sediments – Settlement sites – Evidence of agriculture – Economic utility of archeological sites – Case studies from the Nile Delta, Pyramids Plateau and Upper Egypt.
Pre-requisite: G101, Practical: 2h/W
 
G402 Hydrogeology and Geomorphology of Egypt, 2h/W
Introduction. Major hydrogeological and geomorphological sectors of Egypt: the northwestern coastal zone, the Nile Valley, the Nile Delta and its fringes, the Western Desert, the Eastern Desert and the Sinai Peninsula. Hydrogeological and geomorphological setting on the northwestern coastal zone. Hydrogeology and geomorphology of the Nile Valley. Hydrogeology and geomorphology of the Nile Delta. Comparison study between east and west Nile Delta. Hydrogeology and geomorphology of the Western Desert. Comparison study between some pilot areas in the north and south Western Desert. Hydrogeology and geomorphology of the Eastern Desert and Red Sea. Hydrogeology and geomorphology of the northern Sinai. Hydrogeology and geomorphology of the southern Sinai. The study includes location, general geology, hydrogeology, hydrology, hydrochemistry and geomorphology of each sector. Review.
Pre-requisite: G 204, Practical: 2h/W
 
G403 Ore deposits and Radioactive geology, 2h/W
Ore deposits: Methods of formation of mineral deposits, genetic classification of mineral deposits, plate tectonic theory and formation of mineral deposits, examples of magmatic mineral deposits, weathering, sedimentary and metamorphic ore deposits.
Radioactive Geology: Definitions, Radioactive elements and radioactive series, effects of radiations on minerals and rocks and their significance, geochemical properties and abundances of U and Th in rocks and minerals, geochemical cycles of U and Th in nature, nuclear elements and their uses. Classification of U and Th minerals with examples, radioactive mineral deposits in Egypt with examples.
Pre-requisite: G306, Practical: 2h/W
 
G404 Basin analysis, 2h/W
Definition and scope - Classification of basins - Basin subsidence and basin fill - collecting data for basin analysis (outcrops and subsurface) - Case studies of some sedimentary basins.
Pre-requisite: G307, Tutorial: 1h/W
 
G405 Remote sensing and GIS, 2h/W
Remote sensing:Introduction, spectral signatures, aerial photography, satellite radar and GPS, digital remote sensing, image processing, principal components transformation, digital filters, geometrical aspects and mapping of RS, unsupervised classification, supervised classification, atmospheric correction and spectral signatures and applications.
Geographic Information System: GIS basics, raster and vector GIS data, spatial data preparation and assigning GIS themes, GIS project planning and design. Data digitizing, editing, and geocoding. Identifying digitizing errors, correcting, spatial data using ARCEDIT, constructing topology, getting attribute data into ARC/INFO, linking attributes to spatial features, georeferencing and coordinate systems, joining adjacent themes, spatial data Analysis and GIS Queries.
Pre-requisite: G101, Practical: 2h/W
 
G406 Paleoecology and Paleoclimatology, 2h/W
Paleoecology: Introduction, Paleoeclogical data derived from sedimentology, mineralogy, geochemistry, and paleontology as concepts from all these fields are applied to the study of ancient organisms and their environments. Paleoclimatology: Introduction - Environmental parameters - Taphonomy - Populations in palaeoecology – Palaeobiogeography – Climate - The Ice Ages - Global warming and sea-level Rise - Aspects of Palaeozoic – Cenozoic global climate - Palaeoclimatic data from fauna and flora.
Pre-requisite: G201, Practical: 2h/W
 
G407 Geology of the Delta and the Quaternary, 2h/W
Classification of modern deltas, criteria for recognition of ancient deltas, economic significance of deltaic deposits, case studies of some deltaic sequences. Definition and scope of the Quaternary Geology. Factors affecting Quaternary Nile Delta morphology and sedimentary facies, magnitude of fluvial discharge, magnitude of wave and tidal currents. Climate, tectonics, subsidence, and sediment supply.
Pre-requisite: G205, Practical: 2h/W
 
G408 Basement rocks of Egypt, 2h/W
Historical review, classification of the basement complex in Egypt, stratigraphic and tectonic units, metallogenesis, application of plate tectonic theory, history of magmatic activities, tectonic evolution, detailed description of the rock units of the basement complex: e.g. metamorphic rocks, sedimentation and sedimentary rocks, volcanicity and volcanic rocks, ophiolitic rocks, gabbroic rocks, and granitoid rocks. Practical examination of hand specimens and thin sections representing the different basement rock units in Egypt.
Pre-requisite: G207, Practical: 2h/W
 
G409 Stratigraphy of Egypt, 2h/W
Introduction; Paleozoic outcrops in the Gulf of Suez region, subsurface of the WesternDesert and exposures at Oweinat area. Triassic exposures in Araif El Naqa. Jurassic of Gabal Maghara, Gulf of Suez and subsurface of north Western Desert. Cretaceous rock stratigraphy and their economic importance. Paleogene rock stratigraphy in the Nile Valley & Fayoum. Neogene deposits in the Red Sea facies, WesternDesert and the subsurface of the Nile Delta. Quaternary deposits in Egypt. Practical studies including stratigraphic correlation charts, geologic maps, and some index fossils.
Pre-requisite: G206, Practical: 2h/W
 
G410 Petroleum geology of Egypt, 2h/W
Definition of oil and /or gas pool. Field and province. Petroliferous provinces in Egypt. The Gulf of Suez petroliferous province: Geologic setting, stratigraphy, petroleum geology. Some examples of oil fields. The Nile Delta petroliferous province: Geologic setting, stratigraphy, petroleum geology. Abu Madi gas field. The WesternDesert petroliferous province: Geologic setting, stratigraphy, petroleum geology and sedimentary basins. Razzak oil field. Northern Sinai petroliferous province.
Pre-requisite: G206, Practical: 2h/W
 
G411 Paleobotany and Palynology, 2h/W
Paleobotany & Palynology focus on studying plant megafossils and plant microfossils (e.g. Spores & Pollen) with emphasis on: Definition of the subject- Aims and applications- Types of plant preservation- Methods used for the examination of fossil plants- System of nomenclature and classification of fossil plants- Divisions of the plant kingdom- History of the plants in the Palaeozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata worldwide and in Egypt- Fossil flora and Palaeoclimatology- Relationship of palynomorphs to sedimentation- Applied palynology. Practical sessions focus on the study of plant megafossils worldwide and those found in Egyptian strata from Carboniferous- Neogene.
Pre-requisite: G201, Practical: 2h/W
 
G412 Economic geology , 2h/W
Economic Geology: Definition of mineral deposits, ore, grade of ore, ore mineral utility and strategic mineral deposits, exhaustion of mineral deposits, economic evaluation of mineral deposits, metallogenic provinces, metallogenic epoch. Genetic classification of mineral deposits, plate tectonic theory and formation of ore deposits. Endogenic deposits, magmatic mineral deposits, hydrothermal mineral deposits, pneumatolytic mineral deposits, metamorphic mineral deposits, sedimentary mineral deposits. Tectonic history of Egypt, Precambrian mineral deposits in Egypt, Phanerozoic mineral deposits in Egypt. Ornamental, building and industrial stones. Gemstones. Examples of some Egyptian economic mineral deposits.
Pre-requisite: G203, Practical: 2h/W
 
G413 Tectonics of Egypt, 2h/W
Pan African Orogeny. Proterozoic plate tectonism in the Afro-Arabian Shield. Wilson's cycle and magma activity. Basement rock units. Major structural elements affecting the Pan-African Orogenic belts: Sutures, thrust, and shear zones. Magmato-tectonic evolution of the Afro-Arabian Shield in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. Precambrian structures and its role in the configuration of the Paleozoic sedimentary basins. Paleozoic tectonism and related structures. Mesozoic tectonsim and related structures. Reactivation of early formed structures and neotectonics. Practical examination of some structural and tectonic maps of selected areas in Egypt.
Pre-requisite: G307,Practical: 2h/W
 
G414 Organic geochemistry, 2h/W
Introduction - The nature of organic matter in sediments - Biological degradation and consumption of organic matter - Abundance of organic matter in sediments, TOC- Organic matter preservation - Origin and nature of the phytoclast group - Origin and nature of the amorphous group - Origin and nature of the palynomorph group- Palynological kerogen classification - Palynofacies in a sequence stratigraphic context- Some applied aspects of palynofacies analysis - Thermal maturation - Application of micropalaeontology to hydrocarbon exploration in Egypt - NE Africa and the Middle East. Practical application: quantitative representation of organic geochemical data in the form of figures, histograms and ternary plots. Study of Kerogen types and identification of different levels of maturity.
Pre-requisite: G309, Practical: 2h/W
 
G415 Structures of Egypt, 2h/W
Pan African Orogeny. Proterozoic plate tectonism in the Afro-Arabian Shield. Wilson's cycle and magma activity. Basement rock units. Major structural elements affecting the Pan-African Orogenic belts: Sutures, thrust, and shear zones. Magmato-tectonic evolution of the Afro-Arabian Shield in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. Precambrian structures and its role in the configuration of the Paleozoic sedimentary basins. Paleozoic tectonism and related structures. Mesozoic tectonsim and related structures. Reactivation of early formed structures and neotectonics. Training on some structural maps of selected areas in Egypt.
Pre-requisite: G307, Tutorial: 1h/W
 
G416 Geologic field training
Exercises describing geologic maps of selected areas in Egypt – Week-long field trip to a selected desert area in the Sinai, Red Sea mountains, Western Desert or the Nile Valley – One-two days field excursion to the nearby localities e.g. the northern coastal plain, Greater Cairo area (Mokattam, Abu Roash, Cairo-Suez, Qattamiya-Ain El Sukhna, Cairo Geological Museum), Gabal Shabraweet, Gabal Ataqa and Fayoum Province – Field studies include recognition of rock types, stratigraphic units, dominant structures, collecting rock and fossil samples – Laboratory studies include description of the collected minerals, rocks and fossils.
Practical: 2h/W, Tutorial: 2h/W
 
G417 Environmental geology, 2h/W
Introduction – Atmosphere – Lithosphere – Hydrosphere – Biosphere – Environment and human activities – Global warming and sea level rise – Greenhouse effect – Coastal erosion – Shoreline protection – Pollution in urban areas due to industrial and mining activities – Groundwater pollution due to extensive use of fertilizers and insecticides – Water-logging problems – Sand dune migration – Environmental Impact Assessment – Examples from Egypt and other countries.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Gphy400 Research project and essay, 1h/W for 2 terms
Reviewing a research project in geophysics to be selected by the department, preparing a written essay on it.
 
Gphy401 Well-logging, 2h/W
Introduction to borehole geophysics. Borehole environment and basis of recording logs. Quick review of electrical properties of rocks, theories and uses of electrical logs. Review of radioactive properties of rocks, theories and applications of radioactive logs. Review of acoustic properties of rocks and theory and applications of sonic logs. Thermal properties of rocks, theory and applications of thermal logs. Other types of wire line logs. Combination and quick look interpretation of the different types of wire line logs. Application of well logging in different fields.
Pre-requisite: Gphy201, Tutorial: 1h/W
 
Gphy402 Engineering and Marine geophysics, 2h/W
Engineering Geophysics: Introduction, analysis of stress and strain. Stress in the ground. Shear strength. Application of geophysical methods to engineering problems (Depth to bed rock, fracture zones and faulting, groundwater problems, construction materials, location of voids and mineshafts). Geophysical assessment of soil and rock properties.
Marine Geophysics: Introduction and view of the seas and oceans. Operating conditions and measuring seismic equipment. Interpretation of seismic and other geophysical data.
Pre-requisite: Gphy203, Tutorial: 2h/W
 
Gphy403 Radiometric prospecting, 2h/W
Introduction to radiometric and applications of radiometric. Fundamentals of natural radioactivity, radioactivity in nature, types of radiations, cosmic rays, decay series, half-life period, equilibrium, scattering of Gamma Rays, energy spectra, units. Radiation effects on rocks and minerals, interaction of gamma rays with matter. Uranium and Thorium minerals, behavior of U and Th during magmatic crystallization and their geochemistry. Classification of radioactive minerals, U and Th radioactive minerals. Instrumentation and calibration, types of detectors, Giger Muller, Scintllometers and spectrometers and radon detector. Field surveys and data corrections, ground and airborne surveys, dead time correction, background corrections and statistical noise correction. Interpretation of radiometric, qualitative and quantitative etc… Applications and some case studies of radiometric measurements.
Pre-requisite: Gphy201, Practical: 2h/W
 
Gphy404 Environmental geophysics and Geoarcheology, 2h/W
Environmental Geophysics: Introduction.Application of geophysical methods such as resistivity, electromagnetic,and ground penetrating radar to investigate geological, geotechnical, hydrological and environmental problems. Physicalproperties of earth materials as they relate to geophysical explorationand environmental geosciences. Overview of small-scale high resolutionapplications of other geophysical methods (seismic, gravity, magnetic.(
Geo-archeology: Introduction - Principles and techniques – Pre-historic man (Paleolithic and Neolithic) implements - Water logged sites – tailoring GIS software for archeological application – Application of Palynology to Archeology - Geophysical and geochemical analyses of archeological sites – Faunal and floral assemblages in Holocene sediments – Settlement sites – Evidence of agriculture – Economic utility of archeological sites – Case studies from the Nile Delta, Pyramids Plateau and Upper Egypt.
Pre-requisite: Gphy201, Practical: 2h/W
 
Gphy405 Analysis of petroleum systems, 2h/W
Introduction – Basin analysis techniques - Reservoir modeling techniques – Sequence startigraphic concepts – Source rocks, reservoirs and traps (seals) – Field based sequence stratigraphy – Interpretation of seismic data. Course will cover a diverse dataset such as outcrop observations, seismic, well-logs, core and bulk organic and geochemical data. Applications: Steps, required data, examples.
Pre-requisite: G310, Practical: 2h/W
 
Gphy406 Introduction to seismic prospecting, 2h/W
Refraction seismic definition. Refraction basics: Types of seismic waves, wave propagation, wave interaction with boundaries, Snell's law, velocities and rock properties. Seismic velocities of common earth materials.Travel-time curves, first arrivals, determining earth structure from travel times,derivation of travel time equation. Refraction seismic equipment and field procedures:Equipment overview, types of seismic sources, seismometers or geophones, recording ground displacement at several offsets simultaneously, recording systems, sources of noise. Interpretation of refraction data. Advantages and disadvantages of refraction and reflection methods.
Pre-requisite: Gphy301, Practical: 2h/W
 
Gphy407 Application of seismic prospecting, 2h/W
Basic reflection seismic theory: Seismic wave propagation; wave length, frequency, velocity, reflection coefficient, polarity, absorption and resolution. Various techniques of exploration seismology: Refraction, diffraction and reflection. Seismic data acquisition on land: Sources, basic field equipments and layout. Seismic data acquisition at sea: Sources, receivers, and instruments. Interpretation of 2-D seismic reflection data; Geological structures, mapping, contouring and modeling. Fundamental of geophysical analysis, digital processing methods applied to seismic data. Description of 3-D seismic technique.
Pre-requisite: Gphy301, Practical: 2h/W
 
Gphy408 Introduction to the drilling methods, 2h/W
Introduction to cable tool drilling. Petroleum geology and fluids. Formation evaluation. Well engineering fundamentals. Drilling technology. Drilling engineering fundamentals. Drilling rig parts and accessories (power head assembly, power mast, drilling stem, drill bits, mud pump assembly, mud pump suction hoses, and pumps). Deviated directional drilling. Advanced drilling practices (drilling management and operations, advanced well engineering, completion technology, managing the environment and subsea systems).
Pre-requisite: Gphy301,Practical: 2h/W
 
Gphy409 Geophysical and geological field training
Exercises describing geologic, magnetic, gravity maps and seismic profiles of selected areas in Egypt. Week-long field trip to a selected desert area in the Sinai, Red Sea mountains, Western Desert or the Nile Valley. One-two days field excursion to the nearby localities e.g. Helwan observatory, some oil-drilling companies working on the Delta plain, the northern coastal plain, Greater Cairo area (Mokattam, Abu Roash, Cairo-Suez, Qattamiya-Ain El Sukhna, Cairo Geological Museum), Gabal Shabraweet, Gabal Ataqa and Fayoum Province. Field studies include recognition of rock types, stratigraphic units, dominant structures, training on some geophysical equipments – Laboratory studies include interpretation and processing of the measured geophysical data using computer software.
Practical: 2h/W, Tutorial: 2h/W
 
 

 

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