Zoology Courses Content

 

First Level
Z 101, Introduction in Cytology, Histology & Genetics, 2 h/W
Cell components and ultra structure- cell division (mitosis and meiosis)- epithelial tissues- connective tissues- vascular tissues- muscular tissues- nervous tissues- basic molecular biology- genetic engineering techniques- DNA modifying enzymes- the biology of genetic engineering.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Z 102, Systematic of animal Kingdom, 2 h/W
The basis of taxonomy, general characters of kingdoms protista and Animalia and their major phyla and classes including a detailed example of each class. The major phyla are: Protozoan Protista, phylum Porifera, Coelenterata, Platyhelminthes, Aschelminthes, Annellida, Arthropoda, Mollusca and Echinodermata.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Z121, Zoo diversity, 2 h/W
Invertebrate: Taxonomy of Animal kingdom and definitions of animals that build a skeleton. General characters of protozoan protista and phylum: Porifera, Coelenterata, Annellida, Arthropoda, Mollusca, Echinodermata and their classes. Examples of each phylum and class illustrating their structure, Feeding, reproduction, life cycle, collection, farming and their economic importance.Vertebrates: General character of chordate.
Classification of chordate. Amphioxus with some body systems. General character of vertebrate. Different system of bony and cartilagenous fishes. General character of Reptiles.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Z 122, Functional Morphology, 2 h/W
Introduction: The over-all aims of the course are: include the identification of different functions and vital activities done by the individual; also explain how biological mechanisms functions on the basis of both physical & chemical laws. Demonstration: of basics of nutrition, its classes, how they digested, absorbed and metabolized. Respiration- Excretion- Blood circulation- coordination between functions (chemical) coordination through, hormones and nervous system.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Z 125, Nutrition, 2 h/W
Sources of nutrition (Plant- animals)- types of healthy food- role of nutrition in energy supplement- balanced diet- mechanism of food digestion- mechanism of absorption- metabolism (anabolism- catabolism).
Practical: 2h/W
 
Z 126, Excretion, 2 h/W
Definition at excretion- types at excretion- organs of excretion- kidney structure and functional adaptation- mechanism of urine formation- filtration under pressure- glomerular filtrate component- reabsorption (active- positive) secretion- hormones that play role in urine formation- role of kidney in detoxitication- How to measure toxins in urine & suitable time for its detection. Other functions for kidney (pH regulation- osmotic pressure- blood pressure – etc. …).
Practical: 2h/W
 
Z 126, Excretion, 2 h/W
Definition at excretion- types at excretion- organs of excretion- kidney structure and functional adaptation- mechanism of urine formation- filtration under pressure- glomerular filtrate component- reabsorption (active- positive) secretion- hormones that play role in urine formation- role of kidney in detoxitication- How to measure toxins in urine & suitable time for its detection. Other functions for kidney (pH regulation- osmotic pressure- blood pressure – etc. …).
Practical: 2h/W
 
Second Level
Z 201, Introduction of Embryology, 2 h/W
Study of reproductive organs and gametic cells – Sexual cell cycle spermatogenesis and Oogenesis – Fertilization and Zygot formation – Cleavage and Organogenesis – System formation in different examples of Vertebrates – Diseases resulted from chromosomal abnormalities or through abnormal miotic division.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Z 202, Coelomic Invertebrate and Entomology, 2 h/W
Taxonomy, anatomy, reproduction, life cycle, nutrition, respiration, excretion of examples in the following phyla and classes:
* Phylum Annellida: class Oligochaeta (Allolobophora and Phretima), class Polychaeta (Neries and Heteroneries) and class Hirudinia (Hirudo).
* Phylum Arthropoda: class Onycophora (Peripatus), calss Crustacea (Prawn, Artemia, Daphnia, Cyclops, Argulus, Lepas, Balanus, Neptunus and Pagurus), class Myriapoda (Scolopendra and Julus), class Arachnida (Buthus, Lycosa, Galeodes, Argas and Sarcoptes).
Phylum Mollusca: class Amphineura (Acanthochition), class Gastropoda (Eremina), class Bivalvia (Anodonta) and class: Cephalopoda (Sepia and Octopus).
Phylum Echinodermata: class Asteroidea (Astropecten) class Ophioroidea (Ophiocoma), class Echinoidea (Tripneustes), class Holothuroidea (Holothuria) and class Crinoidea (Heterometra).
Entomology:
1- Introduction , basic concepts of animal development & somatic and germ cells.
2- Reproduction & gametogenesis.
3- Types of eggs & pattern of cleavage.
4- Fertilization types and steps.
5- Parthenogenesis.
6- Embryonic development of amphioxus, tadpole , chick & mammals.
7- Embryonic membranes.
8- Cloning.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Z 203, Functional Morphology, 2 h/W
Introduction: Definition of physiology, importance of application of this study. Simple knowledge in physiological activity in living organism specially human and systems responsible for these activities as: Digestive system (nutrition- digestion- absorption- metabolism and fecation). Respiratory system: (Mechanism of respiration- gas transport types of respiration). Circulatory system: (heart- blood vessels- haemopoiesis- functions of blood- fate of blood). Muscular system (types of muscle- structural unit of the muscle- mechanism of muscle contraction. Nervous system: (structure & functions of neuron- central muscle system- peripheral nervous system). Excretory system (structure- mechanism of action). Endocrine gland (structure & function of some endocrine gland).
Practical: 2h/W
 
Z 204, Chordata and vertebrate, 1h/W
Introduction, general characters, classification, subphylum: cephalochordate Subphylum: Urochordata. Gnathostomes, chondrichthyes (the dogfish): the integumentary system, skeleton-muscular system and locomotion, digestive system and nutrition, respiration, circulation, excretion and osmoregulation, reproduction, nervous system and sense organs, chondrichthyan diversty. Class Feleostomi (the Boltte ). Introduction to the amniotes, Class Reptilia: skin structure, skeleton, muscular system, locomotion, digestive system, respiration, circulation, excretion, reproduction, thermoregulation, reptile diversity. Class Aves: feathers, flight, (the pigeon), skin, skeleton, digestive system, circulation, reproduction, urinogenital system, nervous system and sense organs, bird diversity. Class Mammalia: (Rabbit), skin, skeleton, digestive system, respiration, circulation, excretion, reproduction, nervous system, mammalian diversity.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Z 424, Immunity, 2 h/W
The cellular basis of immunity- the development of T and B cells- ultra structural and immunological characteristics of T and B cells- clonal selection theory- the nature of the antigen- lymphocyte recirculation- immunological memory- immunological tolerance- the functional properties of antibodies- the strength of the antibody- antigen interaction- complement system- the fine structure of antibodies- the generation of antibody diversity- T cell responses- MHC molecules- cytotoxic T cells- helper T cells- the signaling complex in the plasma membrane of T and B cells- interleukins- selection of T cell repertoire- the role of MHC complex in transplantation reactions and MHC polymorphism- the Ig superfamily. Floe of genetic information- the structure of DNA and RNA- gene organization- gene structure in prokaryotes- gene structure in eukaryotes- gene expression- isolation of DNA and RNA- handling and quantification of nucleic acids- radiolabelling of nucleic acids- nucleic acid hybridization- gel electrophoresis- DNA sequencing- nucleases- restriction enzymes- nucleases apart from restriction enzymes- polymerases- enzymes that modify the ends of DNA molecules- DNA ligase- host cell types- vectors- plasmids- phages- alternative methods for DNA delivery.
Practical: 2h/W
, 2 h/W
Cytology: Introduction: cell discovery- cell theory- relationships between cytology and other biological sciences- Protoplasmic components: plasma membrane: ultra structure- functions- methods of transfer across plasma membrane- Endoplasmic reticulum (E.R.): types- functions- relationships among E.R., plasma membrane and nuclear membrane- Ribosomes: ultra structure- functions- Golgi apparatus: ultra structure- functions- Mitochondria: ultra structure- origin.
Genetics: a summary on the general structure of the genetic material- how is gentic material been synthesized in viruses, bacteria and eukaryotes- general structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes- fer chromosomic material (the genome of mitochondria and chloroplasts)- structural and numerical chromosomal changes with a detailed explanation for the associated mechanisms- a brief account on mutations as a change in genetic material.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Z 222, Biophysics Cell Communication, 2 h/W
*Cell signal transduction – ex.: mating in yeast cells.
* Signaling can be Local or Distant- examples:
- Paracrine (local) Signaling ex. Growth factor proteins & neurotransmitters.
- Endocrine (distant) Signaling ex. Hormones.
* Cell- To- Cell contact- here the signaling is direct: ex.
- Gap junctions & plasmodesma.
- Cell surface contacts.
* Stages of cell signaling process: Reception, Transduction and Response.
* Ex. Of a receptor protein & signal transduction system
1- G-Protein Receptors.
2- Tyrosine kinase receptors.
3- Ion channel receptors.
4- Non-membrane bound [cytoplasmic- intracellular] Receptors.
* Review of some important points of Signal Transduction Pathways
1- An enzyme cascade. 2- 2nd messenger signal molecules.
3- Cholera toxin. 4- Ca-ions.
5- Plant phytochrome action via G-protein & Ca++ channels= greening.
6- Gene activation via cascading signal transductions.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Z 225, Blood & Endocrine, 2 h/W
Blood component- plasma composition – functions of blood – red blood corpuscles (origin- mumber- age- fate- structure function adaptation) – haemolyizing agent- role of toxins in blood component changes- role of blood in respiration white blood cells (types- origin- function- nuber disturbance in member). Blood platelets (synthesis – functions- blood clot) blood groups and its uses in paternity. Endocrine glands (pituitary- thyroid- parathyroid- islet of langerhans- adrenal gland- endocrine part of gonads). Functional abnormalities due to hyper or hyposecretions.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Z 226, Anatomy and Physiology, 2 h/W
General knowledge of some body systems from the anatomical point of view – Structure of skeletal system, bone connection and physiological factors affecting bone growth – Digestive system, mechanism of digestion , factors affecting enzymes and hormones secretion for digestion – Structure of circulatory system – Blood synthesis – Physiological factor affecting blood components - Structure and function of neuromuscular system - Structure and function of urinogenital system - Mechanism of urine formation - Safety factors for mother health.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Third Level
Z 301, Physiology , 2 h/W
(1):Nutrition- Digestion- Metabolism.
General idea about nutrition- digestion in alimentary canal- contractile movement of alimentary canal- Hormone of alimentary canal (Gastrin- cholecystokimine- Enterokine)- secretion of HCl liver cycle and bile juice- Intestinal movement and regulation of its secretion. Absorption (normal- abnormal)- fecation- defect in fecation- (diarrhea- constipation). Metabolism: Corbohydrate metabolism: glycolysis- kreb’s cycle- Electron transfere chain- oxidative phosphorelation. Metabolism of monophosphate hexoses- metabolic change between different types of hexoses- Glycogen synthesis and glycogenolysis. Fat metabolism: metabolism of simple lipid (triglyceride)- (formation- storage- oxidation) stored lipid- metabolism of phospholipids and glycolipid)- Metabolism of cholesterol- plasma lipid. Protein metabolism: Metabolism of amino acid- deaminatin- urea cycle- biosynthesis of amino acids- changes of amino acid into specific compound. Mal nutrition- metabolism in disease. Metabolism of nucleic acids. Enzymes. Role of vitamins and trace element. Circulatory system: Blood component- haemostasis- blood group- structure of the heart- valves- pulses- factors affecting circulation. Respiratory system: component of respiratory system and adaptation to function- Mechanism of respiration- Gas exchange- Gas transport. Control of respiration- Types of respiration.
Pre-requisite Z 203, Practical: 2h/W
 
Z 302,Embryology, 2 h/W
1-Revision of basic concepts of embryology, including gametogenesis; fertilization; pattern of cleavage and embryonic membranes of vertebrate species.
2-Embryonic development of vertebrates (amphioxus , tadpole , chick & mammal) including muscles ,coelom , heart , eyes , nervous system , skeleton, olfactory and auditory organs.
3-Embryonic membranes & placenta .
Practical: 2h/W
 
Z 303, Entomology (Anatomy & Taxonomy) , 2 h/W
Insect anatomy:
-Integumentary system: hypodermis, cuticular layers, body wall processes.
-Muscular system: distribution & structure of muscles.
-Digestive system: types of alimentary canals & salivary glands, histology of alimentary canals, digestion in insects.
-Circulatory system: accessory pulsating organs, haemolymph & haemocytes, haemoceole & fat tissues.
-Respiratory system.
-Tracheal system: Tracheal gills & Blood gills, Spiracles & air sacs.
-Excretory system: Malpighian tubules, accessory & alternative excretory organs.
-Reproductive system: structure of ♂&♀ reproductive system, accessory glands in ♂&♀ reproductive system, histological study of follicles & ovarian tubes, types of ovarioles.
-Nervous system: central N.S., visceral N.S. & peripheral N.S., the brain & ventral nerve cord cganglial, the neurons & teir types, the secrotery neurons (corpora ullata& corpora cardurs and prothoracic glands.
-Mechanical receptors, chemical receptors.
-Thermal receptors & humidity receptors.
Insect Taxonomy:
-Metamorphosis, types of larvae, tyes of upae.
-Development of wings, general classification, subclass Apterygoter (4 orders), subclass pterygota (Division exopterygota, 12 orders), division endopterygota (6 orders).
Practical: 2h/W
 
Z 304, Aquatic Biology, 2 h/W
Taxonomony, anatomy, development and farming. Reproduction, affinities, mode of feeding, economic importance and effects on the environment of various examples of aquatic animals belonging to the following phyla and classes: Phylum Porifera (Sponges), Phylum Cnidaria (classes: Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa & Actinozoa), ctenophore, Rhyncocoela, Rotifera, Annellida, Arthropoda (Crustacea, Chilopoda, Diplopoda, Merostomata), Mollusca (Amphineura, Gastropoda, Pelecypoda, Cephalopoda), Bryozoa, Entoprocta, Brachiopoda, Echinodermata.
Pre-requisite, Z 202, Practical: 2h/W
 
Z 305, Microtechnique , 2 h/W
It fixation of tissue to protect it from disintegration and stop enzyme activity that increasetissue disintegration. Types of fixatives for each tissue, size of sample, and time specific for each fixative. Preparation of different fixative as: Buffered neutral formation solution – Formol-Calcium solution – Formalin saline solution – Formalin – ammonium bromide solution – Zenker’s solution – Helly’s solution – Susa;s solution – Bouin’s solution (alcoholic) – Carnoy’s solution – Flemming’s solution. Fixation of samples for electron microscope. Embeding – Impregnation – clearing – dehydration. Cryostat - Freezing section.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Z 306, Histochemistry (i) , 2 h/W
Chemistry of fixation- Principles- methods of fixation- pigments- general form of pigmental particle- colour corrier- deepest colour- general methods of protein – carboxylic group- organic group- amino group- Aldydes- ketone.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Z 307, Histochemistry (ii) , 2 h/W
Fixation chemistry- aims- basics of fixation- methods of fixation- fixatives- pigments: general features of pigment molecules- chlorophores- color fixatives- florocopounds- classification of chlorophores- protein histochemistry- genral methods- carboxyl zamores- organic zamores- aminic zamores- zamores of amino acids- barrier reactions- aldehydes- ketones- carbohydrate histochemistry: histochemical classification- dispersion of macrmolecules on carbohydrates- fixation- chemical methods- staining methods- enzyme extraction- barrier reactions- histochemistry of lectines- lipid Histochemistry: classification of fats- fixation and preparation- methods of extraction- fat- soluble stains- unsaturated fat methods- acid zamores- sugar and acetyl phosphatase- free fatty acids- triglycerides- fats with cholosterole and choline- nuclear acid Histochemistry: fixation- appearance with acid and basic stains- folgen method- hybridization histochenistry: estimation of programmed cell death and regions of nucleolus organization- DNA synthesis- enzyme Histochemistry: basic requirements- fixation and preparation- examples of oxidized and reduced enzymes- immuno-histochemistry: basics- antigens- preparation of antibodies- identification materials- methods of detection.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Z 308, Parasitology, 2 h/W
* Animal associations and definitions of parasitology terms.
* Taxonomy, morphology, anatomy, life cycle, diagnosis, pathogenicity, distribution, control and treatment of various parasitic examples in the following phyla and classes:
1- Parasitic protozoa: Entamoeba spp., Trypanosoma spp., Leishmania, Trichomonas, Giardia, Balantidium Opalina, Monocystis, phasmodium, Eimeria, Toxoplasma.
2-Phylum: Platyhelminthes: class Monogenea (Entobdella, Polystoma and Diplozoon), class Digenea (Fasciola, Schistosoma, Heterophyes, Clonorchis), class cestoidean (Taenia, Hymenolepis, Echinococcus and Diphyllobethrium.
3- Phylum: Nematoda: (Ascaris, Ancylostoma, Strongyloides, Trichinella, Enterobius, Trichuris, Necator, Filaria, Wuchereia.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Z 309, Desert ecology and Egytian Fauna, 2 h/W
Adaptation: patterns- temperature regulation in vertebrate animals- adaptation to low and high temperatures. Organisms and the physical environment population parameters- population growth and regulation- community organization- species-diversity- energy flow in the ecosystem- energetic- efficiency- nutrient cycling- movement of nutrients.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Z 310, Toxicology, 2 h/W
Types of toxins- biological changes in toxins- absorption distribution and excretion of toxins- responds for toxins. Tests for toxins in different parts of the body (liver- nervous system- immunological system- kidney- blood- respiratory system- heart- skin- reproductively system and eyes)- relation between dose and response- chemical causes of cancer- cause of embryonic poisoning- Apoptosis- effect of poisons (pest side- heavy metals- Radiation- organic solvent and vapors- animal and plant waste- material used for nutrient colouration)- application of toxicology.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Z 311, Animal Biosethics, 2 h/W
1- A mirror of myself? Monist and dualist views of animals (a) animal similarities (b) the defect of humanist ethics.
2-Religious resources for animal ethic (a) western culture, religious traditions and the destruction of the environments(b)the modern transformation of philosophy (c) integrating the tradition.
3-Ethics, morals and law relative to animals(a) origin of ethics, culture and values in western society (b)domestic animals in relation to morality, ethics and law (c)the status of animals in the 21st century (d)the role of humanity in the community of life.
4-The animal issue: diversity in values and thoughts (a)the emergence of zoocentrism (b)anthropocentric counterattack (c)working with diversity.
5- Animal integrity (a)integrity and zoocentric animal ethics (b)integrity and biocentric ethical theories (c)perception of animals in daily life and in science (d)aesthetics and ethics.
6-The stockperson as a social partner to the animal? A stake for animal welfares (a)fear of people, ease of handling, animal welfare, production and product quality (b)good workers for good animals: the importance of the psychological characteristics of the stockperson (c)using the genetic variability for selecting the animals (d)the stockperson as a social partner for the farm animals (e)the importance of the social network in the development of the human-animal relationship.
7-Associations are changing public opinion and breeding methods to improve animal well being (a)farm animals distress: a challenge for communication (b)consumer associations in Alsace: from food safety to ethics (c)environmental protection associations: from biodiversity to well-being (d)animal protection associations: from pity to competence (e)education for ethics: from zootechnics to the practice of wellbeing references.
8- Trade regulations, marker requirements and social pressures effects on introducing animal friendly livestock production systems: animal welfare.
9- The human-animal relationship in higher scientific education and its ethical implications (a)place afforded to ethical questions (b)perception of animal (c)the conflicting place of ethics
Practical: 2h/W
 
Z 312, Fish Culture, 2 h/W
I- Fish biology: External features Size Adaptation For Aquatic Life: Shape Movement, Respiration, Protection and Sense Organs.
II- Importance of fish as food: High protein content (13-20% of body weight) compared to other animals or plants. Unsaturated fat minerals, P Ca Vitamins A, save food energy, cold blood float in water.
III- Feeding habits: Detritivore, planktivore, herbivore, carnivore, omnivore food differ according to fish size age species, season availability, digestive system: Adapted for food type mouth, teeth, … etc. Feeding time place motive search schooling migration cultured fish can be adapted for food type sign. Time.
IV- Reproduction: Sexual (cartilaginous fish), ovoviviparous, viviparous, asexual (most bony fish) oviparous upto 3 million eggs spawning season factors season migration river/sea sexual attraction, mating courting, nest building, guard brooding, maturity stage, ripening stages and gono-somatic index.
V- Fish culture: Meaning, importance, cultured fish, fish farms. Ttypes: monoculture monosex, polyculture mixed culture, fish in rice field, fish beside duck, fish/plant. Types of fish farms: Indoor raceway, Hosho pond cage, desert source of fry, natural hatcheries. Fish food, natural, artificial and manual automatic.
VI- Management: Position, area, farm engineering, source of water, electricity, guarding, housing, marketing and financial.
VII- Laboratory: Biological, chemical and veterinary.
VIII- Pollution and diseases:
Practical: 2h/W
 

En 301, Morphology & Taxonomy in Insect, 2h/W
Morphology: The integumentary system (The hypodermis, the cuticle, processes of body wall). The regions of insect body: The head region (sutures structures, comparative morphological structure, types of antennae, and types of mouth parts). Structure of cervix region, thoracic region. Prothorax, alary thorax, types of wings, types of legs, abdominal region (abdominal segments, structure of the segment, abdominal appendages.
Taxonomy:
-Metamorphosis, types of larvae, types of upae.
-Development of wings, general classification, subclass Apterygoter (4 orders), subclass pterygota (Division exopterygota, 12 orders), division endopterygota (6 orders).
Practical: 2h/W 

 
En 302, Microtechnique and insect grouping, 2 h/W
- Preparation of paraffin sections
- Whole mount preparation of different types of insects & their appendages.
- Types of different fixatives.
- Types of different stains.
-Methods for Histochemical demonstration of nucleic acids (DNA & RNA).
-Methods for Histochemical demonstration of proteins.
- Methods for Histochemical determination of carbohydrates.
- Types of nets used for insect collections.
Tutorial: 1h/W
 
En 303, Insects anatomy, 2 h/W
-Integumentary system: hypodermis, cuticular layers, body wall processes.
-Muscular system: distribution & structure of muscles.
-Digestive system: types of alimentary canals & salivary glands, histology of alimentary canals, digestion in insects.
-Circulatory system: accessory pulsating organs, haemolymph & haemocytes, haemoceole & fat tissues.
-Respiratory system.
-Tracheal system: Tracheal gills & Blood gills, Spiracles & air sacs.
-Excretory system: Malpighian tubules, accessory & alternative excretory organs.
-Reproductive system: structure of ♂&♀ reproductive system, accessory glands in ♂&♀ reproductive system, histological study of follicles & ovarian tubes, types of ovarioles.
-Nervous system: central N.S., visceral N.S. & peripheral N.S., the brain & ventral nerve cord cganglial, the neurons & teir types, the secrotery neurons (corpora ullata& corpora cardurs and prothoracic glands.
-Mechanical receptors, chemical receptors.
-Thermal receptors & humidity receptors.
Practical: 2h/W, Pre-requisite, Z 202
 
En 304, Insect physiology, 2 h/W
Molting and cuticale formation- removal of old cutical- hormonal control- functions of cuticle- excitation and activation of muscle- physiology of visceral muscle- muscle- digestion- hormonal control of midgut- food selection- Absorption- enzymes- blood circulation and function- heart beat- aeriation and gas exchange in aquatic insect and endoparasites – respiratory pigments- trace element and hormonal control for egg laying- ylk precipitation- spermatogenesis- urineformation and reabsorption of uscful substance in hind gut- role of excretory system in adjustment of internal environment- responds of nervous system to stimulus and its physiology- Acetylmergic nerve cell- physiology of neuromuscular junction- respond to chemical and mechanical changes- light receptors- humidity receptors.
Practical: 2h/W
 
En 305, Histopathology, 2 h/W
Study different diseases and their symptoms which infect the insects with different pathogens. Studying structure and structural adoptions and histopathogicul changes resulting from these pathogens
Studying different pathogens (protozoa, viruses, bacteria, fungi, worms) and studying advantages and disadvantages of chemical insecticides.
Practical: 2h/W
 
En 306, Embryology & Metamorphosis, 2 h/W
- Formation of tissues- Maturation of oocyte- cleveage and formation of plastoderm- early development of the embryo- formation of the germ band- gastrulation- formation of embryo nic membrane.
- Development of organ systems (Appendages- Nervous system- other ectodermal structures- embryonic cuticle- A. canal.
- Hatching (stirnulation of hatching- mechanism of hatcing).
- Development of immature stages (growth of body- Moulting- regulation of growth).
-Metamorphosis of adult stage (Hemimetabolous- Holometabous) Development external features of adult stage (appendages).
- Formation & development of the internal viscera- Regulation of metamorphosis- Emergence of adult stage (post embryonic development).
Practical: 2h/W
 
Es301, Egyptian fauna, 2 h/W
Adaptation: patterns- temperature regulation in vertebrate animals- adaptation to low and high temperatures. Organisms and the physical environment population parameters- population growth and regulation- community organization- species-diversity- energy flow in the ecosystem- energetic- efficiency- nutrient cycling- movement of nutrients.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Es 302, Biological associations, 2 h/W
Competition: competitive exclusion principle examples of the two-species competition- strategy of competition- factors of competition- competition in nature- ecological isolating mechanisms- predalin: laborating studies- field studies- components of predation. Parasitism: definition and characters- social parasitism, Host specificity and complex life cycles. Mutualism, Symbiosis, Cannibalism, Commensalisms, Amensalism
Practical: 1h/W, Tutorial: 1h/W
 
Es303, Fish Biology, 2 h/W
I- Adaptation for aquatic life: Shape size density color variation. Movement fins swim blodder. Respiration. Gills oxygen concentration, lung fish. Protection scales mucus spines electricity, teeth, color shape photospheres lateral line.
II- Feeding: Planktivore , Herbivore, Carnivores (insectivore piscivore ….etc), Detritivore, Omnivore, Food pyramids, Stimuli for feeding, Artificial and Supplementary feeding. Growth, factors, Habitat, Crowding, Food Race, Age determination, Length-weight, Relationship.
III- Digestive system: Type of mouth position, size, teeth, elephant snout fish type of stomach (Herbivore- Carnivore), Intestine length.
IV- Schooling behavior migration.
V- Reproduction: Maturity ripeness gono-somatic index induced spawning, Breeding
season, Recognition mating migration, Nest building, Parental care. External and
internal fertilization.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Es 307, Human physiology, 2 h/W
Circulatory system and blood- Blood component- Factors affecting blood synthesis – Factors affecting blood deformity- Diseases results from blood component abnormalities- Muscle & nerve structure and factors affecting its activity- Excretion and urine formation, Kidney function- Respiration- Gas transport and blood- Endocrine gland (Types, secretion-Functions-abnormalities by hyper and hyposecretion).
Pre-requisite, Z 203, Practical: 2h/W
 
Es 308, Parasitology, 2 h/W
* Animal associations and definitions of parasitology terms.
* Taxonomy, morphology, anatomy, life cycle, diagnosis, pathogenicity, distribution, control and treatment of various parasitic examples in the following phyla and classes:
1- Parasitic protozoa: Entamoeba spp., Trypanosoma spp., Leishmania, Trichomonas, Giardia, Balantidium Opalina, Monocystis, phasmodium, Eimeria, Toxoplasma.
2-Phylum: Platyhelminthes: class Monogenea (Entobdella, Polystoma and Diplozoon), class Digenea (Fasciola, Schistosoma, Heterophyes, Clonorchis), class cestoidean (Taenia, Hymenolepis, Echinococcus and Diphyllobethrium.
3- Phylum: Nematoda: (Ascaris, Ancylostoma, Strongyloides, Trichinella, Enterobius, Trichuris, Necator, Filaria, Wuchereia.
Immunoparasitological terms and aspects with examples illustrating different types of immune responses of the hosts.
Pre-requisite: 202, Practical: 2h/W
 
Es 309, Congenital malformation, 2 h/W
Factors affecting congenital information, Ecological factors , Genital factors – Types of abnormalities – Skeletal malformation – Appendicular malformation – External malformation – Kidney malformation – malformation of nervous system – Heart and blood vessels malformation – General idea of organs formation.
Pre-requisite: Z 201, Practical: 2h/W
 
Es 311, Chemical and Biological Control, 2 h/W
This study includes:
1- Biological control includes: Natural enemies, predators, parasites and entomopathogens:
a) Insect predators, study the characters of the ideal predators, the attributes of the successful predator, study different examples from exopterygota & endopterygota.
b) Insect parasites, study the comparison between the predators & parasites, study the attributes of the successful entomoparasite, study the types of parasitism, study to different examples of the enotomoparasites.
c) Entomopathogens, study the types of entomopathogens (Bacterial diseases, fungal diseases, protozoal diseases and virtual diseases.
2- Chemical control, includes:
Classification of chemical insecticides into 3 groups (Repellants, Attractants and Insecticides) Study the different insecticides, characters of ideal insecticides. Classification of the insecticides into two groups:
a) The natural products
b) The synthetic products
Study the components of the synthetic insecticides (Active ingredient + supplementary materials).
Study the mode of action of insecticide, formulation of insecticides Machine used in insecticides & the cautions during application.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Z321, Nervous system in Biophysics, 2 h/W
Component on cellular level: Structure of nervous system- cellular component. Ultrastructure of neurone- synapses- types of nerves- neurotransmitter- properties of nervous system. Properties of receptors- mechanism of nerve impulse transmition. Control nervous system- function of anterior lobe of brain- functions of brain stem. Peripheral nervous system: Information transform nervous excitation and reflex.
Aulonomic nervous system: structure- functions- receptor- semse organs.
Receptors: optic system- Auditory system- chemasensory system (taste- smell). Higer functions of brain.
 
Fourth Level
Z 401,Comparative anatomy and Evolution, 2 h/W
Introduction, vertebrate characteristics, concepts relevant to modern vertebrates, homology, analogy, phylogeny, ontogeny, organic evolution, the origin of the vertebrates, regional, differentiation, anatomical planes, taxonomy of chordates. Integument: The epidermis of fishes and aquatic amphibians, keratinized appendages, the bony dermis of fishes, dermal ossification in tetrapods, glands, dermal pigments, function of the integument, Development of skin appendages. Tooth, morphologic variants in fishes, amphibians, reptilians, birds and mammals. Skeletal system: regional components of the skeleton, skull and visceral skeleton, the neurocranium, the cartilaginous stage, cartilaginous neurocrania of adult vertebrates, neurocranial ossification centers, the generalized dermatocranium, the neurocranial- dermatocranial complex in modern tetrapods, the visceral skeleton, ear ossicles, the tetrapod hyoid, vertebrae, ribs, sterna, girdles, fins, limbs, locomotion. Circulatory system: blood, the heart and its evolution, arterial channels and their modifications, venous channels and their modifications. Vrogenital system. Kidneys and their ducts, gonads, genital ducts. Muscles: classification of muscle tissues and muscles. Nervous system: brain, cranial nerves, autonomic nervous system, sense organs.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Z 402,Immunity & Molecular biology, 2 h/W
The cellular basis of immunity- the development of T and B cells- ultra structural and immunological characteristics of T and B cells- clonal selection theory- the nature of the antigen- lymphocyte recirculation- immunological memory- immunological tolerance- the functional properties of antibodies- the strength of the antibody- antigen interaction- complement system- the fine structure of antibodies- the generation of antibody diversity- T cell responses- MHC molecules- cytotoxic T cells- helper T cells- the signaling complex in the plasma membrane of T and B cells- interleukins- selection of T cell repertoire- the role of MHC complex in transplantation reactions and MHC polymorphism- the Ig superfamily. Floe of genetic information- the structure of DNA and RNA- gene organization- gene structure in prokaryotes- gene structure in eukaryotes- gene expression- isolation of DNA and RNA- handling and quantification of nucleic acids- radiolabelling of nucleic acids- nucleic acid hybridization- gel electrophoresis- DNA sequencing- nucleases- restriction enzymes- nucleases apart from restriction enzymes- polymerases- enzymes that modify the ends of DNA molecules- DNA ligase- host cell types- vectors- plasmids- phages- alternative methods for DNA delivery.
Practical: 2h/W
    
Z 403, Experimental Embryology, 2 h/W
• Basic concepts of experimental embryology.
• Reproduction , Gametogenesis & general concepts of fertilization and development.
• Tissue culture and its application including IVF , cloning , transgenic animals & stem cells.
• Regeneration in vertebrates.
• Immune system.
• Causes, incidence and patterns of congenital anomalies in different body organs ( including the development of body system.
Pre-requisite: Z 302, Practical: 2h/W
 
Z 404, Protection against radiation damage, 2 h/W
Types of radiations- the uses of radiation in industry, agriculture and scientific research- sources of radiation- effects of radiation on body systems (primary effects – secondary effects)- physical protection- chemical protection- biological protection.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Z 405, Environmental pollution & Biological analysis, 2 h/W
Ecosystem and sources of pollution- industrial waste- Agriculture waste- petroleum waste- heat pollution- types of pollutant (Air and water) noise pollution.
Pollution markers: Toxicological test- lethal and sublethol doses- factors affecting toxicity- pollution effect on living organism.
Biological analysis: sample preparation: centrifugation- gradual- subcellular
Biochemical techniques: paper chromatograph- column chromatograph- thin layer chromatograph- gas- liquid chromatograph- ion exchange chromatograph- gradual pH change.
Electrophoresis using electrical current at known pH.
Enzymatic analysis: substrate test- enzyme preparation
Sample collction- use of isotope in analysis – Estimation of plasmic proteins – kidney function – tumer merker.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Z 406, Physiology (ii) , 2 h/W
Excretory system: Urine formation- structure of the kidney- other functions of the kidney.
Muscular system: Types of muscle- structure of myofibril- structural and functional unit of muscle- classification of muscle- mechanism of muscle contraction- factors affecting contraction- Excitation of muscle- severe of energy for muscle contradion.
Nervous system: Component of nervous system- neuron & neurogland- synapses- central nervous system- peripheral- nervous system- autonomic nervous system- sense organs.
Pre-requisite: Z 301, Practical: 2h/W
 
Z 407, Developmental Biology, 2 h/W
• History & basic concept .
• Gene & development.
• Cellular basis of morphogenesis.
• Fertilization.
• Creating multicellularity (Cleavage ).
• Reorganization of the embryonic cells ( gastrulation).
• Mechanism of cellular differentiation.
• Specification of cell fate and the embryo axes.
• Cellular interaction during organ formation.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Z 408, Communication biology & behavior, 2 h/W
Response to external and internal tumuli- learning and behavior- environment and behavior- physiology and behavior- genetics and behavior- social behavior- reproductive behavior- communication- developmental hosting- phylogeny of learning- neural mechanisms of learning- reasoning and intelligence- reflexes- instinctive behavior.
Communication behavior- language of different animals.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Z 408, Communication biology & behavior, 2 h/W
Response to external and internal tumuli- learning and behavior- environment and behavior- physiology and behavior- genetics and behavior- social behavior- reproductive behavior- communication- developmental hosting- phylogeny of learning- neural mechanisms of learning- reasoning and intelligence- reflexes- instinctive behavior.
Communication behavior- language of different animals.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Z 409, Cell Biology, 2 h/W
Introduction and emergence of the advanced cell biology. Cell chemistry: Importance of polymerization analysis- self aggregation and associated support. Proteins: amino acids- peptide link- levels of protein structure and its application- modification and proteolysis- functional design- antibodies- enzymes- alternative groups- control mechanisms of protein function. Nucleic acids: nucleotide- DNA structure- modification and regain of phenotypes- circular DNA- RNA forms- role of RNA in protein synthesis. Protein synthesis: ribosomes- structure in prokaryotes and eukaryotes- steps of protein synthesis. Carbohydrates: monosaccharides- disaccharides- polysaccharides- carbohydrate- included macromolecules. Fats: characters- structure- classification. Cell membrane: historical review on models- fluid mosaic model- membrane lipids- fluidity of membrane lipids- factors affecting and control. Cell membrane proteins: types- mobility. Cell membrane carbohydrates: dissimilarity- transfer across cell membrane- types of trandfer (cellular- intracellular- intercellular)- mechanism of transfer- passive transfer- active transfer- proteins of transfer- mediated transfer- Energy production: sugar catabolism- mitochondria and energy production: mitochondria appearance- respiration- oxidative phosphorylation- electrochemical protein sequencing- Intracellular compartments: endoplasmic reticulum (E.R.): types- forms- role of smooth E.R. in hydroxyl detoxification, lipid synthesis, glycogen catabolism and ionic transfer- Golgi apparatus: form- polarity- associated vesicles- mutual role with E.R. in sugar addition to proteins- role in protein secretion- secretory passages- cellular leakage- cell transport- covered vesicles- lysosomes and cellular digestion: digestion inside cells- digestion outside cells- lysosomal storage diseases- Pyrochsesomes: location- biological forming- role in oxidative reactions- Nucleus: nuclear membrane- nuclear pores- transfer across nuclear membrane- protein polarity inside nucleus- nuclear matrix- nucleus and nucleolus control- Cytoskeleton: form- functions and mechanisms of microtubules.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Z410, Physiology (iii) , 2 h/W
Endocrine gland: Types of hormones- role of hormones- synthesis, secretion and action of hormones- regulation of endocrine action- Molecular basis for hormone action (mechanism of action- hormone receptors on membrane and intracellular)- G protein- second messenger. Hypothalanus and pituitary gland. Hormones of hypothelanus- mechanism of action of hypothclanic hormones- The regulatory role of pituitary hormones secretion. Hormones of auterior lobe of pituitary (synthesis- effect- regulation of secretion- action- hypo and hyper secretion. Hormones of intermediate lobe. Adrenal gland (Structure of cortical layer- hormones secretion and function). Adrenal medulla hormones (secretion- effect- mechanism of action- hypo and hypersecretion- regulation). Thyriod gland (hormonal synthesis- effect- mechanism of action- regulation- disturbance in section). Endocrine ort of pancreas (synthosis & secretion of insulin- glucagons- somatostatin). Gastoic and intestinal hormones (pancreatic polypeptide- gastrin- secretin- cholecystochinine). Gonadol hormone: male and female reproductive hormones (symthesis & secretion)- Effect of female hormones on uterus, vagina- regulation of menstrual cycle- pregnancy- menopause).
Practical: 2h/W
 
Z 411, Fish Fortune, 2 h/W
I- Fish biology: Fish, shape, size, movement, respiration, sensation, protection.
II- Fish feeding: Planktivore (plant and animal), Herbivore (floating shore bottom), carnivore (different stage of aquatic animals), omnivore, detritivore. Digestive system adapted for food type: Mouth size, position, teeth, stomach, alimentary canal. Feeding: Time, place, searching, migration, schooling.
III- Artificial feeding: For cultured fish balanced artificial food: components size wet, dry; suitable for fish species age season time manual and automatic.
IV- Fish reproduction: Maturity stages: fry, fingerlings, immature, mature, adult. Reproduction stages: Ripening, ripe, spawning, spent, quiescent.
Spawning season: Factors, light, temperature, flooding, migration. Fertilization: Asexual oviparous, sexual oviviparous, viviparous, mating courting, nest building, guarding brooding. Source of fish seed for aquaculture: Hatcheries, injection, monosex, hybridization.
V- Fish growth: Suitable conditions: environment, temperature, light, suitable food, no crowding, enemies, pollution, aeration.
VI- Looking after natural fish production: Control pollution, illegal fishing of young or during breeding.
VII- Fish culture: Importance, percentage production, type of fish farms, management, pollution, diseases.
Pre-requisite: Z 313, Practical: 2h/W
 
Z 414, Taxidermy and preparation of museum models,1 h/W
Historical review- materials & chemicals- instruments- methods of collection & hunting- fixatives & pastes- artificial eyes- fixation & transportation- Skinning & tanning- skeleton formation- invertebrates preservation- dryness (insects)- casting method for fishes & reptiles- embalming birds & mammals – finishing- caring- museum arrangement & show.
Tutorial: 1h/W
 
Z 415 Research project and essay, 1h/W for 2 terms
Reviewing a research project in geophysics to be selected by the department, preparing a written essay on it.
 
En 401, Plant Pest & Disease Transmission, 2 h/W
Study the types of plant injuries:
Feeding injuries includes, different plant regions (roots, stems, leaves, seeds & fruits). Absorption of plant juice, burrowing tunnels- forming tumers- injuries by ovipositor- injuries by diseases transmission- commonpests (rice, wheat, clover, maize cotton, vegetables, fruits tree, stored products, pests of beneficial insets.
Plants todiseases- adaptation of beneficial insects- None microbial diseases- microbial diseases (Bacterial diseases- fungal diseases- virual diseases.
Pre-requisite: En 304, Practical: 2h/W
 
En 402, Chemical & Biological Control, 2 h/W
This study includes:
1- Biological control includes: Natural enemes, predators, parasites and entomopathogens:
a) Insect predators, study the characters of the ideal predators, the attributes of the successful predator, study different examples from exopterygota & endopterygota.
b) Insect parasites, study the comparison between the predators & parasites, study the attributes of the successful entomoparasite, study the types of parasitism, study to different examples of the enotomoparasites.
c) Entomopathogens, study the types of entomopathogens (Bacterial diseases, fungal diseases, protozoal diseases and virual diseases.
2- Chemical control, includes:
Classification of chemical insecticides into 3 groups (Repellants, Attractants and Insecticides) Study the different insecticides, characters of ideal insecticides. Classification of the insecticides into two groups:
a) The natural products
b) The synthetic products
Study the components of the synthetic insecticides (Active ingredient + supplementary materials).
Study the mode of action of insecticide, formulation of insecticides Machine used in insecti cides& the cautions during application.
Practical: 2h/W
 
En 403, Economic Entmology, 2 h/W
This course includes many insect pests of economic importance.
Insect pests of fied crop like cotton, maize, wheat, rice and heans. Also many vegetable insects pest: stored product pests. Many house hold insects are studied here.
The shape & size, habit & habitats, type of injury and infective stage of every example is studied.
Pre-requisite: Z 303, Tutorial: 1h/W
 
En 404, Insects as Diseae Vectors, 2 h/W
I- Definition & examples of modes in which insects parasitize man animals &
plants:
1- According to site: ecto-& endoparasitism.
2- According to period of association (co-existence): residential (permanent) & intermittent (temporary).
3- According to stage of parasite & of host.
II- Definition & examples of modes in which insects transmit disease:
- Mechanical, biotic & bio-mechanical (active & passive) transmission.
III- Bionomics of major disease transmitting insects with special reference to
attributes & adaptations:
1- Human lice, fleas, mosquitoes, sand-flies, house fly, stable fly, tse-tse fly,
flesh flies,& a tabanid fly.
2- Aphids- wasps & caterpillars
Practical: 2h/W
En 405, Parasitology, 2 h/W
* Animal associations and definitions of parasitology terms.
* Taxonomy, morphology, anatomy, life cycle, diagnosis, pathogenicity, distribution, control and treatment of various parasitic examples in the following phyla and classes:
1- Parasitic protozoa: Entamoeba spp., Trypanosoma spp., Leishmania, Trichomonas, Giardia, Balantidium Opalina, Monocystis, phasmodium, Eimeria, Toxoplasma.
2-Phylum: Platyhelminthes: class Monogenea (Entobdella, Polystoma and Diplozoon), class Digenea (Fasciola, Schistosoma, Heterophyes, Clonorchis), class cestoidean (Taenia, Hymenolepis, Echinococcus and Diphyllobethrium.
3- Phylum: Nematoda: (Ascaris, Ancylostoma, Strongyloides, Trichinella, Enterobius, Trichuris, Necator, Filaria, Wuchereia.
Practical: 2h/W
 
En 407, Developmental Biology, 2 h/W
• History & basic concept .
• Gene & development.
• Cellular basis of morphogenesis.
• Fertilization.
• Creating multicellularity (Cleavage ).
• Reorganization of the embryonic cells ( gastrulation).
• Mechanism of cellular differentiation.
• Specification of cell fate and the embryo axes.
• Cellular interaction during organ formation.
Tutorial: 1h/W
 
Es 401, Physiology & Ecology, 2 h/W
Nutrition- Digestion- Metabolism.
General idea about nutrition- digestion in alimentary canal- contractile movement of alimentary canal- Hormone of alimentary canal (Gastrin- cholecystokimine- Enterokine)- secretion of HCl liver cycle and bile juice- Intestinal movement and regulation of its secretion. Absorption (normal- abnormal)- fecation- defect in fecation- (diarrhea- constipation). Metabolism: Carbohydrate metabolism: glycolysis- kreb’s cycle- Electron transfer chain- oxidative phosphorelation. Metabolism of monophosphate hexoses- metabolic change between different types of hexoses- Glycogen synthesis and glycogenolysis. Fat metabolism: metabolism of simple lipid (triglyceride)- (formation- storage- oxidation) stored lipid- metabolism of phospholipids and glycolipid)- Metabolism of cholesterol- plasma lipid. Protein metabolism: Metabolism of amino acid- deaminatin- urea cycle- biosynthesis of amino acids- changes of amino acid into specific compound. Mal nutrition- metabolism in disease. Metabolism of nucleic acids. Enzymes. Role of vitamins and trace element.
Circulatory system: Blood component- haemostasis- blood group- structure of the heart- valves- pulses- factors affecting circulation. Respiratory system: component of respiratory system and adaptation to function- Mechanism of respiration- Gas exchange- Gas transport. Control of respiration- Types of respiration.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Es 402, Immunity & Molecular biology, 2 h/W
The cellular basis of immunity- the development of T and B cells- ultra structural and immunological characteristics of T and B cells- clonal selection theory- the nature of the antigen- lymphocyte recirculation- immunological memory- immunological tolerance- the functional properties of antibodies- the strength of the antibody- antigen interaction- complement system- the fine structure of antibodies- the generation of antibody diversity- T cell responses- MHC molecules- cytotoxic T cells- helper T cells- the signaling complex in the plasma membrane of T and B cells- interleukins- selection of T cell repertoire- the role of MHC complex in transplantation reactions and MHC polymorphism- the Ig superfamily. Floe of genetic information- the structure of DNA and RNA- gene organization- gene structure in prokaryotes- gene structure in eukaryotes- gene expression- isolation of DNA and RNA- handling and quantification of nucleic acids- radiolabelling of nucleic acids- nucleic acid hybridization- gel electrophoresis- DNA sequencing- nucleases- restriction enzymes- nucleases apart from restriction enzymes- polymerases- enzymes that modify the ends of DNA molecules- DNA ligase- host cell types- vectors- plasmids- phages- alternative methods for DNA delivery.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Es 403, Marine ecosystems , 2 h/W
Some characteristics of the marine environment: salinity- temperature and pressure- zonation and stratification-waves and currents- tides- estuaries. The open sea- zooplankton- consumers- benthic region- life of estuary- mangrove swamps- impact of man. The seashore- the rocky share- sandy shores. The coral reef.
Practical: 2h/W
 
Es 407, Animal Biosethics, 2 h/W
1- A mirror of myself? Monist and dualist views of animals (a) animal similarities (b) the defect of humanist ethics.
2-Religious resources for animal ethic (a) western culture, religious traditions and the destruction of the environments(b)the modern transformation of philosophy (c) integrating the tradition.
3-Ethics, morals and law relative to animals(a) origin of ethics, culture and values in western society (b)domestic animals in relation to morality, ethics and law (c)the status of animals in the 21st century (d)the role of humanity in the community of life.
4-The animal issue: diversity in values and thoughts (a)the emergence of zoocentrism (b)anthropocentric counterattack (c)working with diversity.
5- Animal integrity (a)integrity and zoocentric animal ethics (b)integrity and biocentric ethical theories (c)perception of animals in daily life and in science (d)aesthetics and ethics.
6-The stockperson as a social partner to the animal? A stake for animal welfares (a)fear of people, ease of handling, animal welfare, production and product quality (b)good workers for good animals: the importance of the psychological characteristics of the stockperson (c)using the genetic variability for selecting the animals (d)the stockperson as a social partner for the farm animals (e)the importance of the social network in the development of the human-animal relationship.
7-Associations are changing public opinion and breeding methods to improve animal well being (a)farm animals distress: a challenge for communication (b)consumer associations in Alsace: from food safety to ethics (c)environmental protection associations: from biodiversity to well-being (d)animal protection associations: from pity to competence (e)education for ethics: from zootechnics to the practice of wellbeing references.
8- Trade regulations, marker requirements and social pressures effects on introducing animal friendly livestock production systems: animal welfare.
9- The human-animal relationship in higher scientific education and its ethical implications (a)place afforded to ethical questions (b)perception of animal (c)the conflicting place of ethics
Practical: 2h/W
 
Es 408, Animal Behavior, 2 h/W
Response to external and internal stumuli- learning and behavior- environment and behavior- physiology and behavior- genetics and behavior- social behavior- reproductive behavior- communication- developmental histing- phylogeny of learning- neural mechanisms of learning- reasning and intelligence- reflexes- instinctive behavior.
Practical: 1h/W, Tutorial: 1h/W
 
Es 413, Fish Farming, 2 h/W
Importance of animal and fish culture. Fish as food of high value. Fish culture development. Difference between fish culture, chicken & cow culture.
Fish culture in desert: A complete biological cycle- Spring (underground) water, fish pond, water plants 5: 10 % increase in production, chicken or cow culture, waste, fertilizers + biogass.
Fish farms: Locality pond size, intensive and extensive culture supplementary food aeration.
Cage culture
Cultured fish: Species short cycle herbivore cavnivore hypridization, Monosex, Monoculture, Polyculture, Mixed culture:- 1- Fish/ Duck, 2- Fish/ Rice, 3- Alternate fish and Agriculture. Pollution and Diseases
Pre-requisite: Z 303, Practical: 2h/W
 
Es 414, Taxidermy and preparation of museum models, 1 h/W
Historical review- materials & chemicals- instruments- methods of collection & hunting- fixatives & pastes- artificial eyes- fixation & transportation- Skinning & tanning- skeleton formation- invertebrates preservation- dryness (insects)- casting method for fishes & reptiles- embalming birds & mammals – finishing- caring- museum arrangement & show.
Tutorial: 1h/W
 
Es 415, Research project and essay, 1h/W for 2 terms
Reviewing a research project in geophysics to be selected by the department, preparing a written essay on it.
 
Z 422, Human anatomy, 2 h/W
Essential component of human body from anatomical point of view – axial skeletal system (skull – vertebral column – ribs – sternum) – Appendicular skeleton (upper and lower limb - pectoral and pelvic girdle) – Connection of bone and articulation with muscles – Muscle nomenclature , their position and mechanism of contraction ) – Heart anatomy and mechanism of pumping – Nervous system (sensory and motor nerve) - Structure of respiratory system - Digestive and urinogenital
Pre-requisite: Z 321, Practical: 2h/W
 
Z 423, Human Physiology , 2 h/W
Circulatory system- Blood component- Factors affecting blood synthesis – Factors affecting blood deformity- Diseases results from blood component abnormalities- Muscle & nerve structure and factors affecting its activity- Excretion and urine formation, Kidney function- Respiration- Gas transport and blood- Endocrine gland (Types, secretion-Functions-abnormalities by hyper and hyposecretion).
Pre-requisite: Z 321, Practical: 2h/W
 
Z 424, Immunity, 2 h/W
The cellular basis of immunity- the development of T and B cells- ultra structural and immunological characteristics of T and B cells- clonal selection theory- the nature of the antigen- lymphocyte recirculation- immunological memory- immunological tolerance- the functional properties of antibodies- the strength of the antibody- antigen interaction- complement system- the fine structure of antibodies- the generation of antibody diversity- T cell responses- MHC molecules- cytotoxic T cells- helper T cells- the signaling complex in the plasma membrane of T and B cells- interleukins- selection of T cell repertoire- the role of MHC complex in transplantation reactions and MHC polymorphism- the Ig superfamily. Floe of genetic information- the structure of DNA and RNA- gene organization- gene structure in prokaryotes- gene structure in eukaryotes- gene expression- isolation of DNA and RNA- handling and quantification of nucleic acids- radiolabelling of nucleic acids- nucleic acid hybridization- gel electrophoresis- DNA sequencing- nucleases- restriction enzymes- nucleases apart from restriction enzymes- polymerases- enzymes that modify the ends of DNA molecules- DNA ligase- host cell types- vectors- plasmids- phages- alternative methods for DNA delivery.
Practical: 2h/W
 

 

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